Volume 8, Issue No 3-3, November 2021
A special issue from the
First UMS Colloquium on Fundamental Research and Application 2020, UMS-CoFA 2020.
17 August 2021. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

<<Previous Volume II Next Volume>>

Issues in Volume 8
I No 1 II No 2 II No 3 II No 3-2 II No 3-3 (this issue) II No 4 I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

Economic and Social Impact, and Responses to COVID-19

MyAgriShop: Linking Rural Farmers With Consumers To Increase Vegetable Sale and Improve Food Distribution During Covid-19 Pandemic and Beyond
Siti Hasnah Tanalol; Aslina Baharum; Nordin Saad; Januarius Gobilik; Mohd Nasir Samsulbahri. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 400 - 407.
Abstract Throughout the history of the vegetable industry in Sabah, farmers in rural areas, especially in Kundasang, have faced intermittent a problem to market the vegetables and fruits from their farms. This problem has intensified during this Covid-19 pandemic and probably beyond this period, as consumers and middle persons are limited due to the movement control order (MCO) to curb the disease but also because of the self-imposed discipline by households to travel less frequently to avoid being contracted with the disease. Farmers who usually sell their produce wholesale to hotels and restaurants directly or through distributors have an excess of highly perishable produce. Established vegetable supply chains, whether direct wholesale in contract farming, government agency intermediaries, or private intermediaries, are not active during the MCO. The MCO does not restrict the Inter-district movement of vegetables; however, farmers, particularly smallholders, do not have enough appropriate paperwork, networking, communications, assets, pricing strategy know-how, and financial resources to move their vegetables in high demand, i.e., households. These farmers also lack technological knowledge to extend the shelf life of their produce. To date, on-site scaled-up industrial factory to process their vegetables and fruit harvests is not economically sustainable. It is expected that the loss of income during the MCO will jeopardize smallholder farmers’ ability to make a comeback after the MCO and Covid-19 are over. Because of the same MCO, households, on the other hand, could not purchase vegetables and fruits, as supermarkets and fresh markets have limited operating hours, while night markets, Tamu, and roadside vendors are all closed. This unexpected poor supply of vegetables could lead to a bigger health issue since, as a whole, Sabahan and the larger Malaysian society consume fewer vegetables and fruits than recommended for optimum health. Considering these problems, MyAgriShop was invented as an App to link rural vegetable farmers directly with consumers, specifically households, to increase vegetable sales and improve food distribution during the Covid-19 pandemic and beyond. This app could offer a better bargain between smallholder farmers and households, as the negotiation is direct and without the involvement of a third party.
View article

Mapping the Potential Pattern of COVID-19 Disease Risk Using Spatial Analysis In Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
Oliver Valentine Eboy; Haryati Abd Karim; Lizalin Kalang. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 408 - 418.
Abstract Movement Control Order (MCO) has been declared in Malaysia on 17th Mac 2020 to break the chain of the COVID-19 pandemic. Since at that time, no vaccine was made to cure the disease, therefore, the MCO was the best method implemented by many countries to minimize or eradicate the disease. COVID-19 is a contagious disease that can be easily contracted to others based on touch, mouth, nose, and eye. Thus, physical distance from each other must be applied and crowded places must be avoided. However, people tend to violate the MCO ruling and the physical distance. This was evident based on the record from phase 1 to phase 5 of MCO in Malaysia. The number of COVID-19 positive cases were decreased during the early phase of MCO but gain traction in phase 4 and 5. At the same time, the total of manpower in the authority is limited and it was difficult for them to monitor in all places. The geographical factors and the distance were also some of the challenges that they must face to make sure the people follow the MCO ruling. The aim of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution of the location factors that the people frequently visited with the help of spatial analysis through Geographic Information System (GIS). By using the Getis-Ord Gi* (hotspot), Kernel density and Overlay technique from the spatial analysis method, this study could then produce a density map of potential COVID-19 risk. Subsequently, this study manages to identify the area of potential risk of COVID-19 that can be contracted and validate it with the current location of the positive cases in Kota Kinabalu district of Sabah. Lastly, the findings of this study are suitable for the authorities to act and mainly focused the spreading of COVID-19 in the high-risk area.
View article

Agriculture, Food and Bio-technology

A Short Review on the Stability of Chlorophylls and Metallo-Chlorophyll Complexes in Fruits and Vegetables
Siti Faridah Mohd Amin; Kharidah Muhammad; Roselina Karim; Yus Aniza Yusof; Hasmadi Mamat; Mohd Dona Sintang. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 419 - 424.
Abstract Chlorophylls are the primary photosynthetic pigment responsible for the green colour in fruits and vegetables and contributed as an antioxidant. Sensitivity of chlorophylls to processing conditions such as light, heat, pH changes, oxygen and chemicals affected the bright green colour and its antioxidant activity which lead to the formation of its derivatives; pheophytins and pyropheophytins. Therefore, the formation of metal complexes of chlorophyll derivatives has been suggested to exhibit green colour similar to native chlorophylls but with more stable processing conditions. This article aims to review the current research on the stabilization process of chlorophylls using divalent cations such as zinc or copper in the formation of metallo-chlorophyll complexes in fruits and vegetables.
View article

Energy and Material

Heating and Cooling Mechanisms for SMA Actuator - A Brief Review
Ferlorna Freddie John Luji; Kenneth TzeKin Teo; SooFun Tan; HouPin Yoong. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 425 - 431.
Abstract Shape memory alloy (SMA) is a type of alloy with significant thermo-mechanical behavior that can be utilized as a solid-state actuator. However, the particularly useful thermo-mechanical behavior also highly non-linear and hysteretic. Making control of the SMA thermomechanical behavior exceedingly difficult. A highly controllable heating and cooling mechanism is the key factor to achieve good control of the SMA thermomechanical behavior. Thus, this paper reviewed the heating and cooling mechanism for the SMA intending to find a controllable heating and cooling mechanism for the SMA. A result from the review suggests that a mechanism with a combination of the thermoelectric module (TEM), a two-way mixing valve, and flexible tubing can offer temperature controllability for the SMA. This can be achieved by using the Peltier effect of the TEM to generate hot and cool liquid that can be channeled to the SMA in a tube through a two-way mixing valve to control the liquid temperature. Although this mechanism had been developed by the researcher, the optimization of the flexible tubing encasing the SMA to achieve maximum performance is still left poorly explore.
View article

Solar Drying Characteristics of Palm Fruitlet Under Natural Convection
Beng Chew Lim; Adeline Shu Ting Tan; Chi Huey Ng; Arham Abdullah; Wan Ahmad Amir Zal Wan Ismail; Jidon Janaun. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 432 - 438.
Abstract Heating is a post-harvest treatment for palm fruitlets that halts enzymatic activities that causes the rise of free fatty acid (FFA) in palm oil-related end-products and prevent deterioration of materials due to microbial contamination. Microwave heating has been extensively utilized for this process. However, due to limited access to electricity in rural areas, solar drying is proposed as an alternate method to perform the process. A proven solar drying system (UMS Eco-Solar Dryer) developed by Universiti Malaysia Sabah was used to perform the drying of palm fruitlet. This study focused on identifying the drying characteristics of palm fruitlet upon reaching its equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in an indirect type solar dryer under natural convection. Cumulative moisture loss of 17.05% was identified at EMC in 168 hours. An experimental drying curve of the drying process was established at the temperature range of 32.6 to 50.5 °C. The average air velocity measured at the drying chamber inlet was 0.26 m/s. Four mathematical models were used to describe the drying curve. Quadratic and logarithm equations are the best model to describe the constant rate period and falling rate period respectively.
View article

Drying Characteristics and Nutritive Analysis of Coffee Beans Under Different Drying Methods
Ayuni Nasrin Binti Mohd Sukiri; Adeline Shu Ting Tan; Chi Huey Ng; Arham Abdullah; Wan Ahmad Amir Zal Wan Ismail; Jidon Janaun. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 439 - 444.
Abstract Drying under certain conditions can result in degradation in terms of the nutritional value of dried products which then affects the consumer acceptability directly. In this study, the effects of three drying methods – open sun drying (OSD), solar dryer (SD), and solar-electrical hybrid dryer (S-EHD) for coffee beans were identified. Parameters observed include weight loss, drying rate, and nutritive value of dried coffee beans. Based on the data obtained, OSD with the highest temperature of 48 °C exhibits the highest moisture loss and drying rate throughout the drying period of 50 hours. Followed by S-EHD with drying temperature controlled at 45 °C and SD under natural convection. High drying temperature was expected to offer a rapid drying rate. The drying temperature attained in both S-EHD and SD does not exceed the acceptable limit for coffee bean drying. Based on the nutritive analysis, S-EHD dried coffee beans contain the highest protein value with the lowest fat content. Whereas, ash content obtained from different drying methods was insignificantly different.
View article

Effect of Perforation Geometry and Tube Diameter of Vertical Aerator From LAMB Dryer on Air Distribution Uniformity
Valerian Kong; Chi Huey Ng; Jidon Janaun. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 445 - 450.
Abstract Laterally Aerated Moving Bed (LAMB) dryer consists of a perforated vertical inner tube that distributes hot air radially. Six different types of perforated tubes were tested to investigate the airflow pattern by analyzing the non-uniformity flow coefficient and pressure drop accordingly with different perforation geometry and tube diameter. High uniformity of air outlet from all perforated tubes was confirmed with the low value of non-uniformity flow coefficient with the range 0.000041 to 0.00055. Furthermore, circle shape perforated hole with 4 mm diameter has the highest pressure drop and rectangle hole with 5mm x 2mm dimension have the lowest pressure drop. 1inch diameter of the tube has the highest pressure drop. This finding will aid in the optimization of the perforated tube design for the LAMB dryer system.
View article

Preliminary studies of the impact of synthesis method on Reduced Graphene Oxide-Titanium Composite
Huzaikha Awang; Muhammad Izzuddin Rumaling. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 451 - 458.
Abstract There are two current major challenges aroused by the continued usage of fossil fuels as the energy source, which are the production of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), resulting in global warming, and concerning the use of energy resources. There is a clear need to explore new prospects for CO2 capture to prevent it from penetrating into the atmosphere. Carbon Capture and Conversion (CCC) method is one of the alternative solutions in carbon management. The synthesized reduced graphene oxide-Titanium (rGO-TiO2) composites used in this preliminary study is the CCC material which will potentially capture the carbon dioxide (CO2) and convert it into a hydrocarbon fuel such as methane. The aim of this preliminary study is to examine the impact of synthesis method and raw material to synthesize the rGO-TiO2 composite. The photocatalytic activity was measured by using the Gas Chromatograph (GC) while the optical properties were measured by using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and fluorescent spectrometer (PL). The EIS, PL and GC results confirms that the synthesize method and raw materials were affect the optical properties and the photocatalytic performance of the rGO-TiO2. The rGO-TiO2(H1) which was synthesized using the TBT powder via Hydrothermal method shows the best electrical properties and lowest recombination rate of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs compared to the other samples. The rGO-TiO2(H1) also shows the highest photoreduction performance with 0.722 ųmol/gcat methane yield.
View article

Information and Communication Technology

Is This True or Fake News? A Conceptual Fake News Identification Model
Christie Pei-Yee Chin; Suaini Sura; Soo Fun Tan; Lai Po Hung; Sharon Sam Mee Kwan. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 459 - 465.
Abstract Over the years, fake news has become unprecedently omnipresent within our society. As social media (SM) become significant channel for disseminating the latest news, its nature also makes the platform an ideal venue for spreading fake stories. The menace of fake news can influence people's beliefs, attitudes, and behaviour by its ubiquity and has a detrimental impact on society. Due to the risks of fake news, research on combatting fake news has gained attention. Despite there were many plausible interventions to combat the spread of fake news, false stories tend to spread faster than accurate stories because of people. Hence, this paper provides a deeper understanding of the fake news presentation on social media from a theoretical lens of information foraging. This study contributes to the growing literature on fake news by developing a conceptual model to identify fake news on social media.
View article

Computer Modelling and Assessment

Determination of In-Situ Density and Physical Properties with Microstructure of Klias Peat Soil
Faizah Md Talib; Syarifah Nur Maisarah Zamri; Ibrahim Yasir Arif; Muhammad Nursyahrain Mustafa; Habib Musa Mohamad. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 466 - 475.
Abstract In Sabah, peatland can be found across Papar, Beaufort, Klias and Bukau in western region of North Borneo Island. With distinct behavior in peat soil, it provides growing consideration and limitations, it has various special characteristics and different from other types of soil. In this research, the physical profile and index properties of peat soil have been investigated through field and laboratory testing methods. Peat categorized as uncertainty material that has high compressibility and variety of index properties. In Klias peninsula where peat abundantly exist, has not recorded any engineering studies and the information of its index properties are inadequate. Thus, this study conducted to determine in-situ density and physical properties of peat soil classify peat soil in engineering terms. Modified peat sampler used to collect sample from various level of depth from soil surface to almost 5.0 m depth where boundary of peat zone and marine clay zone found. In-situ density of peat carried out simultaneously during sampling works of each increasing depth with interval 0.5 m. Disturbed sample analyzed in laboratory to determine the index properties. SEM imaging represents microstructure analysis of Klias peat soil. There are substantial significant relationships between peat behaviour against depth and consequential properties discovered. Both zones of peat and marine clay have significant correlation. The pH value was in the range from pH 4.80 to pH 5.25. Certainly, high pH acidity of mixed-layered at 5.0 m level are believed due to the predominantly present of clay soil content in peat element. In-situ density of peat increasing proportionally to the depth of sample taken using peat sampler.
View article

Modelling Ballistic Impact of Firearm Projectiles on Compressed Earth Bricks
Chung Han Lim. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 476 - 484.
Abstract In this study, the terminal ballistic behavior of firearm projectiles on compressed earth bricks (CEB) was simulated using finite element modelling. Bricks are very commonly used as cladding in buildings and compressed earth bricks have recently made a comeback as an environmentally friendly alternative to typical fired clay bricks. CEBs have proven to possess stronger strength, whilst requiring less energy to produce and emitting less CO2 in the process. Whilst its mechanical properties are now well understood, there are very few studies that looked into the terminal effects of projectile impact onto brick faces and none at all on the ballistic impact on CEBs. Quite often, for buildings situated in conflict areas or war zones, brick clad walls are expected to provide resistance against ballistic impact of small arms fire. Ballistic testing of bricks can be difficult to carry out as it requires access to ammunition and gunnery range. In this study, CEB bricks are modelled in a finite element software ANSYS to simulate the terminal impact behavior of 9 mm caliber projectile. The results of this modelling were validated using another model where the CEB was replaced with a piece of European oak based on actual ballistic test results from a past journal paper that used the same material. By comparing the results of both ballistic simulation and actual ballistic experiment, the deviation between two results can be determined. The reference journal paper presents two numerical ballistic simulation on the penetration depth of European Oak and compressed earth brick subjected to impact by 9 mm bullets. The modelled penetration depth of European Oak subjected to impact by a 9 mm projectile at velocity of 412.7 m/s was 35 mm. Comparatively, the actual penetration depth of European Oak subjected to impact by the same projectile at the same travel speed was 46.5 mm. The deviation between simulated and actual penetration depth of the 9 mm projectile in the European Oak was 24.73 %. The simulated penetration depth of compressed earth brick subjected to impact by a 9 mm projectile at velocity of 338.3 m/s was 17.34 mm. The deviation of 24.73 % is considered quite high by comparing to other researcher’s deviation therefore, more information such as exact dimension of the European Oak target and detailed material properties of European Oak and 9 mm bullet are needed to reduce the deviation gap.
View article

Effects of Sandstone River Aggregate on Crumb Rubber Warm Mix Asphalt
Lillian Gungat; Mohd. Ishaq Bin Selamat; Muhammad Saufi Bin Sulaiman; Nurmin Bolong. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 485 - 491.
Abstract The performance of asphalt pavement is influence by the quality of materials. However, Sabah does not have ample resources of good quality aggregate and have to rely on the sandstone aggregate. Hence, this study investigates the effects of sandstone river aggregate incorporating crumb rubber and warm mix asphalt additive. Laboratory study were carried out on specimen containing 0%, 10% and 20% crumb rubber as replacement of fine aggregate. Optimum binder content for each types of mixtures were determined in the mix design. Specimens prepared at optimum binder content were evaluated in terms of resilient modulus, dynamic creep and moisture susceptibility. Findings from the study indicated that inclusion of crumb rubber increased the optimum bitumen content. It was found that addition of 10% crumb rubber improved the resilient modulus dan resistance to permanent deformation compared with conventional hot mix asphalt. Specimen with 10% crumb rubber also showed the highest moisture susceptibility when added with hydrated lime. Hence, the most ideal crumb rubber content to be used in the road construction is 10%.
View article

Adsorption of 2-Acetyl Pyrroline Using Treated Rice Husk Char
Carla Goncalves De Oliveira Sarmento; Chi Huey Ng; Awang Bono; Duduku Krishnaiah; S M Anisuzzaman; Jidon Janaun. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 492 - 497.
Abstract 2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline (2-AP) is a main aromatic compound that gives fragrant characteristics in rice. However, 2-AP is a volatile compound that would be escaped easily with moisture from the rice during the drying operation and resulted in poorer rice quality. Therefore, the search of a material that is capable in adsorbing 2-AP and maintaining the rice quality is crucial. In this paper, two adsorbents, which are the untreated rice husk char (URHC) and treated rice husk char (TRHC) on their adsorption of 2-AP were investigated. TRHC was chosen as the adsorbent for further adsorption studies due to its high surface area and high adsorption capacity. The removal efficiency was determined at 60 min, in which 93% of 2-AP was removed by TRHC with an adsorption capacity of 625 mg/g. The adsorption isotherm was well-fitted with Freundlich model as compared to Langmuir model with correlation coefficient value of R2 0.9952, suggesting multilayer adsorption. From the conducted adsorption kinetics study, the adsorption fitted into pseudo-second order model as compared to pseudo-first order with a R2 value of 0.9720, indicative the occurrence of chemisorption in the adsorption process. The result demonstrated that TRHC is a promising adsorbent for the adsorption of 2-AP due to its high adsorption capacity, high removal efficiency, low cost, and environmentally friendly nature.
View article

Design and Development of an Aquaponic System with a Self-Cleaning Drainage Pipe and Real Time pH Monitoring System
Yan Yan Farm; Dg. Dinie Amani binti Ag. Mat Daud; Mohd Azlan bin Ismail; Aroland Kiring. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 498 - 503.
Abstract This paper introduces a prototype of a sustainable aquaponic system with a self-cleaning drainage pipe design to control the water level and thus solves the problem of waste accumulation in the fish tank. An Internet of Things (IoT) based monitor system was designed to monitor in real-time the pH value of the water in the aquaponic system. This system is designed for local communities particularly small urban households or for educational demonstration purposes. The result shows that the prototype significantly reduces the waste accumulation, and therefore maintains the water pH levels between 6.5 to 8.0 which is ideal for fish growth. With the help of the self-cleaning mechanism and real-time pH monitoring capabilities, the plant growth was up to 18% better compared to 6% without using the system, and fish growth was 27% better compared to 10.2% to the one not using the system. The implementation of an IoT monitoring system and self-cleaning pipe installation had proven the success of the small scale aquaponic system as shown by the healthy growth rate of the fish and vegetables.
View article

The Evaluation of Molybdenum Disulphide (MoS2) as an Additive in Vegetable Oils
Mohd. Kamel Wan Ibrahim; Mohd Suffian Misaran; Rachel Fran Mansa; Hazuwafa Hassan. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 504 - 511.
Abstract This paper explores the use of Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) as potential additive be added to the vegetable oils. The purpose of adding MoS2 into the vegetable oil is to enhance the lubricant properties in terms of providing lower coefficient of friction and wear. This study aims to measure the coefficient of friction at different loads with different concentration of MoS2 between the coconut oil, castor oil and Empty Fruit Bunch Bio-Oil (EFB Bio-oil). The wear scars are also observed at the optimum concentration of each vegetable oils based on the weight loss on the ball bearing after the friction test. The test was conducted by using the four-ball test machine at 75℃ under constant speed of 600 RPM for 60 minutes at four different normal loads 100N, 200N, 300N and 400N. The addition of MoS2 of 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0wt% concentration in coconut oil, castor oil and EFB bio-oil is able to improve the performance of vegetable oil in reducing the coefficient of friction and wear rather than by using pure vegetable oils with 0wt% of MoS2 as increase in load. EFB bio-oils shows that increase in load at 200N the sliding time starts to reduce, results in increase the coefficient of friction at the optimum concentration of 1.5wt% of MoS22. However, coconut oil has ability to operate for 60 minutes at optimum concentrations of 4.5wt% of MoS2. Due to the limitation of castor oil properties and EFB bio-oil, addition of MoS2 was able to provide lubricant film at a short sliding time as the load was increased. Hence, coconut oil shows better tribological performance and sliding time as increase in load at optimum concentrations of 4.5wt% of MoS2 compared to castor oil and EFB bio-oil.
View article

Signal and Image Processing

A Short Review on Vision-Based Object Grasping Automation with QR Code
Mooi Khee Teoh; Soo Fun Tan; Hou Pin Yoong. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 512 - 518.
Abstract Rapid development in technologies has improved our quality of life at the same time application of automation into daily activities is becoming an imperative. The online order-picking system is foreseen to be a new normal of life and thus this paper reviews various past researches with related technologies. Few topics mainly on the vision-based grasping automation and monocular vision system using QR code as labels or markers is reviewed. The application of different types of grasping automation in variety field is studied and it shows that an Eye In Hand (EIH) type grasping automation, which the camera sensor is placed together with the robot arm's end, is suitable to be applied into an order-picking system. Thereafter, the monocular vision-based system is also reviewed. Studies found that monocular system is an effective method with low cost and easy installation process. Besides, monocular vision-based automation can operate at high accuracy and efficiency, with the aid of artificial markers such as QR code. QR code technology has been widely applied including products identification, item tracing, and manufacturing management. Additionally, QR codes can be used as markers for picking and packaging products in warehouse. However, limited research is observed using vision-based grasping automation system with QR code markers. Thus, a new research direction of monocular vision-based grasping automation using QR code is expected and suggestive.
View article

Design of Portable Electromyography (EMG) System for Clinical Rehabilitation
Bunseng Chan; Ismail Saad; Nurmin Bolong; Eng Siew Kang. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 519 - 526.
Abstract The surface electromyogram was found very useful in muscle activity scanning and diagnosis purposes. With the high demand from the physiotherapist and neurophysiologist, electromyography (EMG) has been developing rapidly to meet the needs. The quantitative analysis of the EMG signal is required to provide particular characteristics of the EMG signal. In this paper, the EMG signals system's design is presented, and the proposed portable EMG system design concept is discussed to improve the current difficulties of EMG signal collection. The sampling frequency of the EMG signal is between 20-500Hz. The EMG signal is received effortlessly using the wired devices during the contraction of the muscle. The portable non-invasive EMG system was successfully reducing the interference of the signal whereby the movement of the muscle can be easily detected during the data collection.
View article

Intuitionistic Fuzzy Segmentation of Brain MRI
Suzelawati Zenian; Norhafiza Hamzah; Nur Batrisyia Ahmad Azmi. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 527 - 532.
Abstract Intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS) involves the concept of non-membership degree and hesitation degree. The application of IFS is crucial in medical imaging as the images are poor in illumination as well as the structure is hard to detect. This work is focusing on segmenting brain MRI images by using advanced fuzzy and ordinary fuzzy theory. One of the intentions in image segmentation is to divide the regions in an image so that it is easier to be analyzed as it extracts meaningful information. In addition, the main highlight in this work is to apply IFS concept in focal brain parenchymal lesions image segmentation. The method is known as intuitionistic fuzzy c-mean (IFCM). Furthermore, the output images by using IFCM and fuzzy c-mean (FCM) are compared. Based on the results, IFCM has better outcomes in term of accuracy and performance test compared to FCM. Hence, the IFCM has better results in segmenting the focal brain parenchymal lesions images compared to FCM since it is able to preserve the surrounding structure of the brain.
View article

Facial Expression Effect on Signal Quality and the Attention Level of Mindwave
Fouziah Md Yassin; Muhammad Shadli Latip; Saturi Baco; Afishah Alias; Ag Asri Ag Ibrahim. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 533 - 538.
Abstract The ability of single electrode electroencephalography (EEG) device such as Neurosky Mindwave has been widely explored in the field of Brainwave Computer Interface (BCI). It has been applied to the devices that are designed specially for people with communication difficulties and severe motor disabilities due to low cost wireless EEG and feasible for daily life usage. Many studies make use of the attention level to be a signal to control automated application such as a wheelchair or home appliance. Thus, this study was to investigate the effects of different facial expression on the attention and signal quality value using Neurosky Mindwave. The brainwave sensor was placed on the forehead frontal point (Fp1) and transmits the electrical impulses wirelessly to Arduino Mega via Bluetooth HC05. The microcontroller was programmed to process the brain signal accordingly and display corresponding output. The testing was executed by frowning and winking with the left and the right eyes. The respondent had to follow the instruction to do these three facial expression. The time gap between two activities were ten (10) to fifteen (15) seconds approximately. The real time data of signal quality and attention value was monitored on CoolTerm. It was found that there were various attention value of the respondent when they executed the activities depending on their focus at that time. However signal quality of 25 could be obtained from all respondents when frowning. This value can be considered as an input signal for control mechanism with if further testing are implemented on a prototype to validate the finding.
View article

Approximated Solutions for Fuzzy Polynomials
Suriana Lasaraiya; Suzelawati Zenian. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 539 - 544.
Abstract Polynomials plays a major role in various fields such as mathematics, statistics, engineering and social science. By using the properties of triangular membership functions, we apply the learning algorithm of fuzzy neural network to solve the fuzzy polynomial equation. The learning algorithm is including the fuzzy coefficient Ai where i=1,2,3 and fuzzy output of Ao. In this paper, we are interested in finding solutions for polynomial like A1x + A2x2 + A3x3=A0 for x∈R where A0, A1, A2 and A3 are fuzzy numbers.
View article

Indigenous and Local Knowledge

Effect of Heat Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Bambangan (Mangifera pajang) Fruit Juice
Jumardi Roslan; Beatricia Amelia Boniface; Hay Chye Ling; Lee Jau Shya; Md. Jahurul Haque Akanda; Suryani Saallah; Mohd Zuhair Mohd Nor. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 545 - 551.
Abstract Bambangan (Mangifera pajang) is an indigenous fruit that merely cultivated in Borneo Island. This fruit has great potential to be commercialized particularly in food applications such as production of juice and ingredient for functional foods. In this study, the effect of different heat treatment on the physicochemical properties of bambangan fruit juice (BFJ) was evaluated. The BFJ was subjected to three different heat treatment conditions: sterilization at 121°C for 3 min, mild temperature long time (MTLT) pasteurization at 65°C for 15 min, and high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization at 90°C for 1 min. After heat treatment, the BFJ samples were further analyzed for their physicochemical properties including moisture content, color, total soluble solid, pH and vitamin C. It was found that heat treatment could decrease the BFJ moisture content. Heat treatment has changed the color of juice in terms of lightness (L*), green to red (a*), and blue to yellow (b*). The total soluble solid was increased with heat treatment, but decreased in vitamin C, and no changes in pH. The results provide important information on the physicochemical characteristic of BFJ in different heat treatment conditions.
View article

Enhancing Enzymatic Resistance of Green Saba Banana Flour by Pullulanase Debranching and Autoclave-Cooling Treatment
Jau-Shya Lee; Ramlah George; NurDiyana Yusoff; Jo Ann Fong. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 552 - 559.
Abstract Flour or starch with low digestibility has long known to demonstrate beneficial physiological effects to human health. Various methods had been employed to enhance the indigestible starch content of the starch/flour from various botanical origin. In the present study, green Saba banana flour was subjected to pullulanase debranching and autoclave-cooling cycles with the aim to investigate the influence on its resistance toward digestion. These two treatments in general resulted in greater enzymatic resistance of the flour but affected the digestion profile of the flour in different way. Debranching produced more amylose and hence promoted formation of highest resistant starch (RS) in the flour (p<0.05). On the other hand, autoclave-cooling treatment, either alone or in combination with pullulanase debranching were predominantly effective in enhancement of SDS content (p<0.05). When combined with autoclave-cooling treatment, debranched resultant RS was partially degraded and converted to SDS. Even though the enzymatic resistance of green Saba banana flour was improved by the treatments employed, the glycaemic index (GI) of the modified flours was still considerably high. Future work to further increase the enzymatic resistance of green Saba banana flour, with the aim to lower the GI is still necessary.
View article

Kadazandusun Speech Recognition: A Case Study
Mohd Shamrie Sainin; Mohd Hanafie Haris. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 560 - 567.
Abstract Currently, there is no existing system that provides common information and utilities for Kadazandusun’s speech recognition since Kadazandusun speech has different features that are not available in other languages. This paper presents a preliminary experiment using one of the famous feature extraction methods which is Linear Prediction Cepstral Coefficients (LPCC). Further investigation on the speech data is using several classifier algorithms to investigate the recognition rate of Kadazandusun words. There are 6 words of Kadazandusun collected as an individual speech to test the feature extraction and the classifiers. The objectives of this study are to investigate LPCC feature extraction and to propose a suitable classifier algorithm for Kadazandusun speech data.
View article

Human and Technological Resources Management

Case Study: Preliminary Design Standard for Bus Stop in Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Yong Pooi Chee; Salinah Dullah; Sivakumar Kumaresan; Habibah Ghazali; Aslina Baharum; Siti Jahara Matlan. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 568 - 575.
Abstract The design of bus stops can cause various problems for passengers, bus drivers, and other vehicles on the road. Malaysia has not yet developed guidelines as a reference for bus stop design to meet consumer requirements, especially on Malaysia’s university campuses. This study was conducted to propose a preliminary design for the bus stop in Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS). By referring to various design guidelines and the principles Universal Design, bus stop preliminary design recommendations for UMS were developed. The proposed guideline provides a general overview of the 7 component physical criteria of the bus stop. This guideline may serve as a critical reference to designers, architects, or developers in building better, user-oriented bus stops in the future. This guideline can provide an important reference for designers, architects, or developers to build better, user-oriented bus stops in the future.
View article

Productivity Improvement by Using Lean Manufacturing Tools: A Case Study on the Jishu Hozen Implementation
Mohd Adzrie; Zachary Henry. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 576 - 581.
Abstract Manufacturing industries rely heavily on machineries and equipment which works to keep up with customer demands. Thus, with the amazing discovery of Lean manufacturing tools, plant maintenance strategy has been more systematic than previous years which had led to improved equipment efficiency. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) implementation on productivity improvement with special focus on the Jishu Hozen (JH) concept. The case study was conducted at two manufacturing companies from two different countries (South Korea and Malaysia), which are Donghai Holesaw Co. Ltd and Kien Nan Industrial Sdn. Bhd., respectively. Implementation of the 7-steps of JH were conducted a month before data collection, then monitoring is conducted for a period of four months. From the results obtained, Donghai Holesaw had an availability, performance, and quality rating of 98.13%, 80.82% and 98.86% respectively whereas Kien Nan Industrials had ratings of 98.26%. 82.89% and 96.10%, respectively. These indicate that the bottleneck departments of Donghai Holesaw Co. Ltd. and Kien Nan Industrial Sdn. Bhd. had improved their Overall Effectiveness Efficiency (OEE) to 78.40% and 78.27% respectively. However, they are still far from the world class rating of 85%. Overall, it can be concluded that the implementation of JH was able to improve overall productivity of the companies.
View article

Wearable Remote Patient Monitoring System
Amirah Ismail; Mark Irwin Goh; Jbathra Nancy Jaibi; Jamal Ahmad Dargham; Mazlina Mamat; Hoe Tung Yew. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 582 - 588.
Abstract Remote patient monitoring system uses e-health sensors and wireless technologies to remotely monitor the health performance of a patient. There are still a few challenges in remote monitoring systems, although it has been developed for a long time such as patient privacy and location tracking. This paper proposes a wearable remote patient monitoring system that comes with a location tracking system. The idea is related to the COVID-19 pandemic which has caused certain hospitals to be overpopulated with COVID-19 patients. It leads to problems such as worn-out healthcare workers, affecting the treatment plan and appointments for non-critical cases to be postponed. Hence, a remote patient monitoring system is a great idea in the establishment of an ideal solution to overcome these problems. The proposed remote patient monitoring system not only monitored the patient’s health data but also store the data in the MYSQL database management system and track the patient’s location using Global Positioning System (GPS). The sensors used in this system are the Electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor, heartbeat sensor, and body temperature sensor. The healthcare professionals can remotely monitor both the COVID-19 or non-COVID-19 patient health data and GPS location through their smartphone or computer at anytime and anywhere. The proposed system can ease the burden for the community from having to repeatedly come to the hospital to track their health condition and reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection.
View article

Education, Technology and Awareness

Development of Augmented Reality Mobile Apps for STEM Education
Siti Hasnah Tanalol; Aslina Baharum; Mohamad Maruf Ahmed; Asni Tahir; Azali Saudi; Shaliza Hayati A. Wahab; Nordin Saad; Jurry Foo. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 589 - 598.
Abstract This paper presents the design and development of mobile apps with the integration of augmented reality technology to support science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) learning in the experiential learning context. A preliminary study on user experience testing was conducted towards 16 respondents of age between 6 - 9 years old. Based on a quantitative methodology and interpretative approach, it is found that the learning is more interesting and efficient in capturing student’s attention and promotes STEM learning with the use of the Augmented Reality (AR) technology. Prototyping methodology was used to develop the Fun with STEM mobile apps. This AR-TESG (AR Technology for Eco-Science Garden) project is a community-based project which aims to bridge the digital divide as well as to provide exposure in the usage and building AR-based content to SK Kundasang students in particular. They will be imparted with ICT skills which will improve their ICT literacy and STEM knowledge through AR applications.
View article

A Preliminary Study on the Graphic Development for Lab Instrumentation Model
Megawati Mohd Yunus; Ayu Afiqah Nasrullah; Nur Hazwani Dahon; Noor Azimah Pelah. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 599 - 603.
Abstract The subject of instrumentation is an essential subject that needs to be mastered by students for long-term continuity of research-related learning. Thus, exposure to the subject of instrumentation was introduced as early as the introductory stage. This subject needs a more comprehensive figure and visual to understand the basic concepts in the use of this instrument. Therefore, the effectiveness of learning and teaching about instrumentation can be integrated with teaching aids in the form of an instrument model designed to facilitate students to understand this subject. This paper presents a preliminary study on the graphic development of the instrumentation model (GCMS). This might make the teaching and learning process more exciting and enhance through practical work.
View article

Environmental and Technological Management

Oil Sorption Behavior of Natural Kapok Fiber as an Alternative to Commercial Synthetic Fiber
Sara Vinothini Pannirselvam; Alex Walzico Robert; Chi Huey Ng; Sariah Abang; Abu Zahrim Yaser; Jidon Janaun. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 604 - 610.
Abstract Oil contamination is attracting the world's attention because it is the major challenge for most river pollution. Considering that as a serious problem, this research attempted to study the oil sorption behavior of natural raw kapok fiber (RKF); which is renewable and inexpensive, as compared to commercial synthetic fiber such as polypropylene fiber. The medium of oil that is used to test the oil sorption fibers' behavior is waste cooking oil (WCO) and used engine oil (UEO). The oil sorption capacity of RKF for WCO and UEO is 50.17 g/g and 49.51 g/g, whereas polypropylene fiber has a lower oil sorption capacity of 34.34 g/g and 30.01g/g, respectively. Interestingly, the efficiency of RKF's oil sorption capacity was further enhanced by NaOH treatment. In this study, the optimum concentration of NaOH treatment on kapok fiber was determined at 0.02M; where the oil sorption capacity of treated kapok fiber (TKF) was further increased to 77.94 g/g for WCO and 62.63 g/g for UEO. In terms of oil recovery from the oil-water mixture, TKF has recovered 98% of WCO at both lowest (0.5%v/v) and highest (2.5%v/v) concentrations of WCO-water mixture used; while RKF has recovered 84% of WCO at 0.5% v/v WCO-water mixture; and 95% of WCO at 2.5% v/v WCO-water mixture. At 0.5% v/v of the UEO-water mixture, TKF and RKF were able to recover 88% and 84% UEO. When the concentration of the UEO-water mixture was increased to 2.5% v/v, both the TKF and RKF achieved high recovery efficiencies of 100% and 99% for UEO, respectively. TKF is proven to have better reusability than the RKF due to its lower percentage reduction of oil sorption capacity after six cycles, TKF has only 22.69% compared to RKF's (30.79%) for WCO, and 25.81% compared to RKF's (40.87%) for UEO.
View article

A Brief Review and Evaluation of Non-Thermal Chemical Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery
Chen Chong Chung; Jidon Janaun; Abdul Karim Mirasa; Abu Zahrim Yaser; Pogaku Ravindra. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 611 - 620.
Abstract Non-thermal chemical flooding is unique to conventional enhanced oil recovery of using water flooding. This paper investigated non-thermal chemical flooding based on some basic characteristics and theoretical understandings derived from non-thermal chemical EOR methods. Fundamental interfacial tension properties, capillary effects, adsorption behaviors, and the types of non-thermal chemicals such as alkaline, surfactant, and polymers involved in the current enhanced oil recovery techniques.
View article

Solar PV Surface Cooling Using Small Companion Solar Cell-Blowers
Hutharsan Mahendran; Mohd Suffian Bin Misaran; Md. Mizanur Rahman; Mohd Adzrie Radzali. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 621 - 626.
Abstract Solar PV surface temperature has been shown to affect the performance of Solar PV especially in temperate and dry weather systems. Many innovative solutions have been proposed by researchers to reduce the operating temperature of the solar PV. Most of this solution is more inclined in using active cooling methods as opposed to the passive cooling method. This is because the active cooling method tends to have a better cooling effect as compared to passive cooling method. However, it is also known that active cooling method is expensive due to the underlying maintenance work and drawing power from the main solar PV system. In this paper, a cooling technique based on the forced air-cooling method is proposed and experimented. The companion system is relying on small blowers powered by small independent solar cell; providing forced air cooling based on the intensity of solar radiation at any given time of day. This system was experimented under a halogen lamp in the lab to establish the power-light intensity-temperature relation. Experiment result shows that average solar PV surface temperature was reduced up to 6 oC using 2 blowers while a single blower able to reduce average surface temperature up to 4 oC at 15600 lx by a direct halogen lamp. On average, the solar PV efficiency was increased by 4% especially using a 2-blower configuration. The result of this experiment shows that a small independent solar-powered blower system was able to cool down solar PV surface temperature and increases solar PV efficiency at minimal maintenance effort.
View article


Marketing Procedures and Profit: A Case Study on Medicinal Plants at Selected Tamu (Traditional Market) in Sabah, Malaysia
Julius Kodoh; Fatin Nur Ain Dzulkarnin; Affendy Hassan; Mandy Maid. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 627 - 640.
Abstract Medicinal plants are the main products of the local herbal industry. These plants were identified as the potential sources of economic growth and socio-economic development of the local people. The marketing of medicinal plants in Malaysia has been developing rapidly based on their importance in the Malaysian economy. High-value herbal products have been categorized as one of the 12 National Key Economic Areas in Economics Transformation Program of Malaysia. However, less attention was given to the marketing and trading chain, targeted market, and income sources for the local people. This research was carried out in selected Tamu in Sabah to identify the commonly marketed and traded medicinal plant species; document the part of medicinal plants utilized; identify marketing pattern and market chains of the medicinal plants trade; and investigate the profit margins of the medicinal plant trade. The data were collected from seven major Tamu at seven in districts in Sabah involving face-to-face interview of 64 local traders using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 53 species of medicinal plants were traded at these Tamu. The most marketed medicinal plants were Raja kayu (Koompassia malaccensis), Mas cotek (Ficus deltoidea), Kayu panas (Goniothalamus roseus), Jerangau merah (Boesenbergia stenophylla), and Halia merah (Zingiber sp.). The plants were mostly sold as unprocessed raw plants (69.5%). The most utilized part of plants was leaf and fruit. Three (3) channels of the marketing chain were involved, namely, i) self-collected (29.7%); ii) buy directly from collectors (53.1%); iii) buy from middlemen (17.2%). The sellers’ profit margins varied and were mainly affected by the types of marketing chain chosen by the sellers. However, the profit margin contributed significantly to the income of the communities. The average monthly profit margin of selling medicinal plants products by the local traders were 60.33% (RM924.07/USD223.21). The results showed that medicinal plants products have a substantial profit margin, indicating profitable sales for the local traders. This study showed that medicinal plants products have a potential source of income to the local traders involved.
View article

UniSE Press
Small UniSE Press Logo