Volume 8, Issue No 4, December 2021

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Issues in Volume 8
I No 1 II No 2 II No 3 II No 3-2 II No 3-3 II No 4 (this issue) I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

Original Articles

Pneumatopteris afra (Christ) Holttum Invasion: Impact on Species Diversity and Soil Seed-Bank Richness in Lafia, Nigeria
Gbenga Festus Akomolafe; Paul Tersoo Terna; Saudat Musa. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(4), 641 - 647.
Abstract Invasive species are a threat to the conservation of natural ecosystems as they compete with crops and natural vegetation, potentially reducing food quality and quantity. A study was carried out to investigate the impact of invasion by the wetland tropical fern Pneumatopteris afra (Christ) Holttum on species diversity and soil seed-bank richness in Lafia, North-Central Nigeria from 2020 to 2021. Community characteristics were computed from data of species sampled from three invaded and uninvaded plots, using ten 1 m x 1 m quadrats, and five 30 m line transects. Soil seed-bank richness was evaluated using the seedling emergence method. Community characteristics of plant species, such as number of species, number of individuals, Simpson Index, Evenness Index, Margalef Index, and Fisher Alpha Index, were higher in the uninvaded sites, and differed significantly from the P. afra-invaded sites (p<0.05). Seed-bank obtained from uninvaded plots contained higher species composition (n=14), compared to the uninvaded plots (n=4). The study showed that invasion by P. afra poses serious threats to species diversity, and the regenerative ability of invaded plant communities. Therefore, measures aimed at controlling the dominance and eventual take-over of native vegetation by invasive P. afra are required to preserve the species richness and diversity in the region.
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Avifauna Composition at Tenghilan Community Forest: A Preliminary Assessment
Logananthini Solayappan; Wing-Shen Lim; Andy Russel Mojiol. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(4), 648 - 653.
Abstract The avian community plays an important role in maintaining the ecosystem at Tenghilan Community Forest in equilibrium, and yet the existing condition of the local avifauna community has yet been investigated by the researchers at this moment. Henceforth, a preliminary mist-net survey was conducted for 6 days, to determine the species composition of avifauna presented at three different forest trails in this state land forest. A total of 48 individuals and 22 species of avian belonged to 13 different families were recorded in this research. The detected avian individuals were comprised mainly of the insectivorous (n=29 or 60.4 %) species, and followed by the omnivorous (n=7 or 14.6 %) species, and finally both the carnivorous species and frugivorous species (n=6 or 12.5 % respectively; Χ263=144.0, p<0.001). There were no significant differences in the diversity richness and distribution evenness of avian species between the three selected forest trails (p>0.05), therefore indicating that the local avifauna species were rich in diversity (H’>1.5) and evenly distributed (1-D>0.5) across the Tenghilan Community Forest. However, further study should be conducted at this state land forest by covering a wider sampling area, also a longer sampling period in future.
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A Post-Mortem Evaluation of Coccidiosis and Helminthiasis of Poultry Birds Slaughtered at Lafia Ultra Modern Market, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Akwashiki Ombugadu; Blessing O. Ayasi; Hussein O. Ahmed; Alhassan A. Aliyu; Oseghale P. Aimankhu; Ndubisi R. Uzoigwe; Victoria A. Pam; Victor A. Adejoh; Linus J. Ajah; Pangwa M. Lapang; James I. Maikenti; Sylvester A. Attah; Kajibia S. Dogo; Cyril D. Nkup; Danaan A. Dakul. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(4), 654 - 666.
Abstract Poultry diseases remain one of the major threats to boosting poultry production in Nigeria. To this end, a post-mortem evaluation of coccidiosis and helminthiasis of poultry birds (Gallus gallus domesticus) slaughtered at Lafia Ultra-Modern Market, Lafia, Nasarawa State was carried from May to August 2017. A total of 100 fresh faecal samples from slaughtered chickens was collected into properly labeled sterile bottles and conveyed immediately to the Zoology Laboratory in Federal University of Lafia for the recovery of helminths and detection of coccidia oocysts. Faeces were grossly examined for blood, colour, mucus and presence of adult worms and proglottids. Adult worms and proglottids seen were removed with forceps and preserved in sample bottles containing 10% formalin for further identification. Concentration technique enlisted was the Simple Salt (NaCl) Floatation. Of the 100 fresh faecal samples examined only 24% were infected with helminths while none had coccidia infection. Cestodes had a high prevalence 11% than nematodes 9% but showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). A 4% co-infection was recorded. Of the five helminth species recorded, Raillietina species was the most prevalent parasite 34% while the least was Choanotaenia infundibulum 2%. The males were more infected 30% than the females 18%, however, there was no significant difference (P = 0.2207) in helminth prevalence between sex. Local breed was more infected 30% while no exotic breed was infected 0%. Thus, there was a very high significant difference (P < 0.001) in prevalence of helminth parasites between breeds. This study recorded a complete absence of trematodes and Eimeria species while cestodes and nematodes were implicated as the major cause of helminth infection in domestic chicken. Good management practices should be adhered to by poultry farmers based on domestic chickens’ potential in supplementing the protein deficit of Nigerian diets.
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Characterization of Probiotics From Water Kefir Grains
Wee Yin Koh; Xiao Xian Lim; Thuan Chew Tan; Sapina Abdullah. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(4), 667 - 672.
Abstract The probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus mali, Lactobacillus casei, and Oenococcus oeni), acetic acid bacteria (Gluconobacter maltaceti), and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains isolated from water kefir (WK) grains were identified and evaluated. All five isolates were acid- and bile-salts tolerant. These strains appeared to be non-hemolytic, susceptible to antibiotics, adhered to porcine gastric mucin, and exhibited high antimicrobial activities against enteric pathogens. All identified five strains have in vitro probiotic properties. The detected genera in the WK grains used in this study included Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Acetobacter, and Gluconobacter.
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Prevalence of Blood Parasites in Dogs of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria
Akwashiki Ombugadu; James I. Maikenti; Favour C. Ezenwankwor; Victoria A. Pam; Ndubisi R. Uzoigwe; Christian N. Okonta; Austin Odika; Chinonso B. Okonkwo; Njila L. Hasley; Benjamin O. Echor; Gideon G. Deme; Hussein O. Ahmed; Oseghale P. Aimankhu; Sylvester A. Attah; Monday D. Samuel; Mock S. Kure; Collina Kambai; Mundi J. Francis; Gladys A. Angbalaga; Cyril D. Nkup; Oluwamuyiwa O. Baiyewu; Lucky O. Atabo; Grace E. Anyebe; Alhassan A. Aliyu; Scholastica O. Ayuba; Simon A. Odey; Victor A. Adejoh; Mohammed A. Ashigar; Joseph O. Ayim; Kajibia S. Dogo; Samuel E. Ameh. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(4), 673 - 678.
Abstract The complex public health challenge associated with the symbiotic relationship between humans and companion animals tend to alter the physiological attributes of humans and their pets. Thus, a study on the prevalence of blood parasites in dogs of FCT, Abuja, Nigeria was carried out from August to October, 2019. Blood samples were collected from 99 dogs and examined using thin smear microscopy. Also, the packed cell volume (PCV) of each sample was measured. Out of the 99 dogs screened, 48 (48.5%) were infected with one or more blood parasites. Exotic breeds had higher prevalence of infection 41 (48.9%) than the local breeds 7 (46.7%), but the difference was not significant (P = 1). Dirofilaria species was the most prevalent blood parasite. Variations in prevalence between blood parasite species was highly significant (χ2 = 30.698, df = 5, P < 0.0001). Parasitic infection in relation to dog varieties varied significantly (χ2 = 123.94, df = 9, P < 0.001). Cane corso was the most infected 2 (100.0%). Dogs from Wuse area were the most infected 10 (71.4%). Hence, blood parasitic infection in dogs in relation to locations showed a high significant difference (χ2 = 11.898, df = 3, P < 0.01). Adult dogs were more infected 34 (53.1%) than puppies 14 (40.0%), nevertheless, the difference was not significant (χ2= 1.0793, df = 1, P = 0.2989). Prevalence of blood parasites in dogs was higher in male dogs 27 (54.0%) than in females 21 (42.9%) but the difference was not significant (χ2= 0.82454, df = 1, P = 0.3639). The mean PCV level was significantly low in infected dogs compared to uninfected dogs. The four zoonotic parasites recorded in this study are of public health importance and calls for an urgent need for a One Health survey.
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Review Articles

Extraction of Anthocyanins and its effect on Mechanical Properties of pH Sensitive-based Films: A Review
Fui San Lee; Sabrina Soloi; Siew Eng How. 2021. Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(4), 679 - 688.
Abstract Owing to its pH sensitive properties, anthocyanins has been used as one of the materials to develop this intelligent food packaging. This paper reviews the extraction methods of anthocyanins that used to incorporate with the film matrix and the fabrication methods of the pH sensitive-based film. Generally, there are changes in the properties of the biopolymer films after the addition of anthocyanins due to the intermolecular interactions between anthocyanins and biopolymer molecules. These results may interfere the capability of the films. Hence, the intermolecular interactions should be extensively considered in fabricating a pH sensitive-based film. Some reinforcement should be added to improve the sensitivity of the films. Whereas the mechanical properties of the pH sensitive-based films can be enhanced by adding plasticizers or mixing with different polymers.
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