A Short Review on the Stability of Chlorophylls and Metallo-Chlorophyll Complexes in Fruits and Vegetables

Siti Faridah Mohd Amin; Kharidah Muhammad; Roselina Karim; Yus Aniza Yusof; Hasmadi Mamat; Mohd Dona Sintang.

Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3-3), 419 - 424.

Back to main issue

Chlorophylls are the primary photosynthetic pigment responsible for the green colour in fruits and vegetables and contributed as an antioxidant. Sensitivity of chlorophylls to processing conditions such as light, heat, pH changes, oxygen and chemicals affected the bright green colour and its antioxidant activity which lead to the formation of its derivatives; pheophytins and pyropheophytins. Therefore, the formation of metal complexes of chlorophyll derivatives has been suggested to exhibit green colour similar to native chlorophylls but with more stable processing conditions. This article aims to review the current research on the stabilization process of chlorophylls using divalent cations such as zinc or copper in the formation of metallo-chlorophyll complexes in fruits and vegetables.

KEYWORDS: Chlorophylls; Natural colourant; Green pigment; Vegetables; Metal ions

Download this PDF file

  1. Ahmed, J., Shivhare, U. S. & Singh, G. D. 2000. Chlorophyll and Color of Green Chilli Puree As Affected by Mesh Size and Temperature. International Journal of Food Properties, 3(2), 305-315.
  2. Aparicio-Ruiz, R., Riedl, K. M. & Schwartz, S. J. 2011. Identification and Quantification of Metallo–Chlorophyll Complexes in Bright Green Table Olives by High-Performance Liquid Chromatrography–Mass Spectrometry Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(20), 11100-11108.
  3. Belitz, H., Grosch, W. & Schieberle, P. 2009. Vegetable and Vegetable Products. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
  4. Bohn, T., Walczyk, T., Leisibach, S. & Hurrell, R. F. 2004. Chlorophyll-bound Magnesium in Commonly Consumed Vegetables and Fruits: Relevance to Magnesium Nutrition. Journal of Food Science, 69(9), S347-S350.
  5. Canjura, F. L. & Schwartz, S. J. 1991. Separation of Chlorophyll Compounds and Their Polar Derivatives by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,39(6), 1102-1105.
  6. Canjura, F. L., Watkins, R. H. & Schwartz, S. J. 1999. Color Improvement and Metallo-chlorophyll Complexes in Continuous Flow Aseptically Processed Peas. Journal of Food Science, 64(6), 987-990.
  7. Chaiwanichsiri, S., Dharmsuriya, N., Sonthornvit N. & Janjarasskul, T. 2000. Process Improvement to Preserve the Color of Instant Pennywort Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban. Journal of Scientific Research Chulalongkorn University, 25(2), 233-243.
  8. Costache, M.A., Campeanu, G. & Neata, G. 2012. Studies Concerning the Extraction of Chlorophyll and Total Carotenoids from Vegetables. Romanian Biotechnological Letters, 17(5), 7703-7708.
  9. Femat-Castañeda, Cesar, Alejandra Chavez-Rodrıguez, Arturo Moises Chavez-Rodrıguez, Hector Flores-Martınez, Vania Sbeyde Farıas-Cervantes, & Isaac Andrade-Gonzalez. 2019. Effect of Agave Fructans and Maltodextrin on Zn2+ Chlorophyll Microencapsulation by Spray Drying. Journal of Food Quality, 9.
  10. Ferruzzi, M. G. & Blakeslee, J. 2007. Digestion, Absorption, and Cancer Preventative Activity of Dietary Chlorophyll Derivatives. Nutrition Research, 27(1), 1-12.
  11. Gunathilake, K. D. P. P. & Ranaweera, K. K. D. S. 2016. Antioxidative Properties of 34 Green Leafy Vegetables. Journal of Functional Foods, 26, 176-186.
  12. Gunawan, M. I. & Barringer, S. A. 2000. Green Color Degradation of Blanched Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Due to Acid and Microbial Growth. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 24(3), 253-263.
  13. Guzmán, G. R., Dorantes, A. L., Hernández, U. H., Hernández, S. H., Ortiz, A. & Mora, E. R. 2002. Effect of Zinc and Copper Chloride on the Color of Avocado Puree Heated With Microwaves. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 3(1), 47-53.
  14. Harp, B. P., Scholl, P. F., Gray, P. J. & Delmonte, P. 2020. Quantitation of Copper Chlorophylls in Green Table Olives by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Inductively Coupled Plasma Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography, A 1620, 461008.
  15. Humphrey, A. 2004. Chlorophyll as a Color and Functional Ingredient. Journal of Food Science, 69(5), C422-C425.
  16. Kmiecik, W., Lisiewska, Z., Słupski, J. & Gębczyński, P. 2008. The effect of Pre-treatment, Temperature and Length of Frozen Storage on the Retention of Chlorophylls in Frozen Brassicas. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria, 7(2), 21-34.
  17. Koca, N., Karadeniz, F. & Burdurlu, H. S. 2007. Effect of pH on Chlorophyll Degradation and Colour Loss in Blanched Green Peas. Food Chemistry, 100(2), 609-615.
  18. LaBorde, L. F. & Von Elbe, J. H. 1990. Zinc Complex Formation in Heated Vegetable Purees. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 38(2), 484-487.
  19. Leunda, M. A., Guerrero, S. N. & Alzamora, S. M. 2000. Color and Chlorophyll Content Changes of Minimally Processed Kiwifruit. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 24(1), 17-38.
  20. Lin, Z. & Schyvens, E. 1995. Influence of Blanching Treatments on the Texture and Color of Some Processed Vegetables and Fruits. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 19(6), 451-465.
  21. Liu, Y. J., Tong, Y. P., Zhu, Y. G., Ding, H. & Smith, F. A. 2006. Leaf Chlorophyll Readings as an Indicator for Spinach Yield and Nutritional Quality with Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 29(7), 1207-1217.
  22. Marquez, U. M. L., Sinnecker, P. & Socaciu, C. 2007. Chlorophylls: Properties, biosynthesis, degradation and functions. Boca Raton: Taylor and Francis.
  23. Nagini, S., Palitti, F.& Natarajan, A.T. 2015. Chemopreventive Potential of Chlorophyllin: A Review of the Mechanisms of Action and Molecular Targets. Nutrition Cancer, 67(2), 203-211.
  24. Ngo, T. & Zhao, Y. 2005. Retaining Green Pigments on Thermally Processed Peels‐On Green Pears. Journal of Food Science, 70(9), C568-C574.
  25. Ngo, T. & Zhao, Y. 2007. Formation of Zinc‐Chlorophyll‐Derivative Complexes in Thermally Processed Green Pears (Pyrus communis L.). Journal of Food Science, 72(7), C397-C404.
  26. Pocock, T., Król, M. & Huner, N. P. 2004. The Determination and Quantification of Photosynthetic Pigments by Reverse Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, Thin-Layer Chromatography, and Spectrophotometry. Photosynthesis Research Protocols, Springer, 137-148.
  27. Rahayuningsih, E., Pamungkas, M. S., Olvianas, M. & Putera, A. D. P. 2018. Chlorophyll Extraction from Suji Leaf (Pleomele angustifolia Roxb.) with ZnCl2 Stabilizer. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55(3), 1028-1036.
  28. Rodriguez-Amaya, D. B. 2016. Natural Food Pigments and Colorants. Current Opinion in Food Science, 7, 20-26.
  29. Rontani, J. F., Beker, B., Raphel, D. & Baillet, G. 1995. Photodegradation of Chlorophyll Phytyl Chain in Dead Phytoplanktonic Cells. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 85(1), 137-142.
  30. Scholl, P. F., Gray, P. J., Harp, B. P. & Delmonte, P. 2020. High resolution mass spectral data from the Analysis Of Copper Chlorophylls and Copper Chlorophyll Degradation Products in Bright Green Table Olives. Data Brief, 30, 105548.
  31. Schwartz, J. & Lorenzo, V. 1990. Chlorophyll in Food. Food Science and Nutrition, 1-12.
  32. Scotter, M. J., Castle, L. & Roberts, D. 2005. Method development and HPLC analysis of Retail Foods and Beverages for Copper Chlorophyll (E141 [i]) and Chlorophyllin (E141 [ii]) Food Colouring Materials. Food Additives and Contaminants, 22(12), 1163-1175.
  33. Senklang, P. & Anprung, P. 2010. Optimizing Enzymatic Extraction of Zn–chlorophyll Derivatives from Pandan Leaf using Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 34(5), 759-776.
  34. Solymosi, K. & Mysliwa-Kurdziel, B. 2017. Chlorophylls and Their Derivatives Used in Food Industry and Medicine. Mini Review in Medical Chemistry, 17(13), 1194-1222.
  35. Teng, S. S. & Chen, B. H. 1999. Formation of Pyrochlorophylls and Their Derivatives in Spinach Leaves During Heating. Food Chemistry, 65(3), 367-373.
  36. Tonucci, L. H. & Von Elbe, J.H. 1992. Kinetics of the Formation of Zinc Complexes of Chlorophyll Derivatives. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 40(12), 2341-2344.
  37. Tumolo, T. & Lanfer-Marquez, U. M. 2012. Copper Chlorophyllin: A Food Colorant with Bioactive Properties. Food Research International, 46(2), 451-459.
  38. Van Boekel, M.A.J.S. 2000. Kinetic Modelling in Food Science: A Case Study on Chlorophyll Degradation in Olives. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80(1): 3-9.
  39. Van Boekel, M. A. J. S. 1999. Testing of Kinetic Models: Usefulness of the Multiresponse Approach as Applied to Chlorophyll Degradation in Foods. Food Research International, 32(4), 261-269.
  40. Vivek, P., Prabhakaran, S. & Shankar, S. R. 2013. Assessment of Nutritional Value in Selected Edible Greens based on the Chlorophyll Content in Leaves. Research in Plant Biology, 3(5), 45-49.
  41. Von Elbe, J. H. 2000. Colorants. In: Fennena, O.W. (ed.). Food Chemistry. Wisconsin-Madison: Marcel Dekker.
  42. Von Elbe, J. & Schwartz, S. 1996. Colorants. Food Chemistry, 3, 651-723.
  43. Wang, Q., Chen, J., Stamps, R. H. & Li, Y. 2005. Correlation of Visual Quality Grading and SPAD Reading of Green-Leaved Foliage Plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 28(7), 1215-1225.
  44. Weemaes, C. A., Ooms, V., Van Loey, A. M. & Hendrickx, M. E. 1999. Kinetics of Chlorophyll Degradation and Color Loss in Heated Broccoli Juice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47(6), 2404-2409.
  45. Zheng, Y., Shi, J., Pan, Z., Cheng, Y., Zhang, Y. & Li, N. 2014. Effect of Heat Treatment, pH, Sugar Concentration, and Metal Ion Addition on Green Color Retention in Homogenized Puree of Thompson Seedless Grape. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 55(2), 595-603.
  46. Östbring, K., Rayner, M., Sjöholm, I., Otterström, J., Albertsson, P. Å., Emek, S. C. & Erlanson-Albertsson, C. 2014. The Effect of Heat Treatment of Thylakoids on Their Ability to Inhibit in Vitro Lipase/Co-Lipase Activity. Food & Function, 5(9), 2157-2165.
  47. Özkan, G. & Bilek, S. E. 2015. Enzyme-assisted Extraction of Stabilized Chlorophyll from Spinach. Food Chemistry, 176, 152-157.