Volume 3, Issue No 1-2, Science and Natural Resources 2016

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Issues in Volume 3
I No 1 II No 1-2 (this issue) II No 2 II No 2-2 II No 3 I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

Full Articles

Viscous Dissipation Effect on the Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow towards Solid Sphere
Muhammad Khairul Anuar Mohamed; Norhafizah Mohd Sarif; Nor Aida Zuraimi Md Noar; Mohd Zuki Salleh; Anuar Ishak. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 59 - 67
Abstract In this study, the steady mixed convection boundary layer flow and heat transfer towards solid sphere with viscous dissipation effect is considered. The non linear parabolic partial differential equations are transformed before being solved numerically by Keller-box method. The effects of different Prandtl number values, the parameter of mixed convection and Eckert number are elaborated. The presence of viscous dissipation effect reduced the Nusselt number which physically promoted a conduction heat transfer process along the sphere surface. Further, the Prandtl number gives more significant impact on reduction of thermal boundary layer compared to mixed convection parameter. View article

Basic Relationship Formulation of the Sundatang Physical Characteristics
Ronald Yusri Batahong; Jedol Dayou. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 68 - 76
Abstract Sundatang is one of the traditional musical instruments which were made based from natural resources in the land of Sabah. The instrument which belongs to the Kadazan, Dusun and Rungus communities ought to be conserved and upgraded to make it popular and well-accepted among the new generation in this state and generally throughout the world. The purpose of this study was to formulate the basic relationship of the physical characteristics of sundatang. To achieve this, several important dimensions were measured from four units of sundatangs. The measured physical characteristics were scrutinized, analyzed and compared to obtain general physical characteristics of sundatang. Four basic relationship equations of the physical characteristics were formulated which are related to the length of sundatang, distance of frets, height of frets and width of sundatang. The formulated equations can be used to calculate the intended physical dimensions in the making process of sundatang. It is also very important to the advancement of construction technique study of sundatang in future. View article

Fern Diversity in Primary and Secondary Forests of Danum Valley and Ulu Segama Forest Complex, Lahad Datu, Sabah
Florina Anthony; Luiza Majuakim; Monica Suleiman. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 77 - 84
Abstract Due to the depletion of primary forests, secondary forests are becoming important to sustain biodiversity. Ferns are good indicators for forest quality as many species have specific ecological preferences. The aim of this study is to compare the diversity and composition of fern species between lowland primary and secondary forests. Secondary forests caused by logging activities are classified into secondary forest of high biomass and low biomass. Eight plots of 20 m × 20 m (400 m2) were established in each forest type totaling to 24 plots. Twenty-six species of ferns belonging to 11 families were identified. Out of this, one species is new to Danum Valley which is Leptochilus cf. decurrens. Shannon-Wiener Index showed that secondary forest of high biomass (H’=2.49) have high species richness than primary forest (H’=2.03) and secondary forest of low biomass (H’= 2.07). Similarity Index was used to compare the diversity of three forest types and cluster analysis was used to show the grouping of the different forest types by using PAST (Paleontological Statistics) version 2.17. Secondary forest of high and low biomass showed high similarities. Higher species richness of ferns in the secondary forest of high biomass is due to the presence of many light demanding fern species. Thus, canopy opening may have influence the species diversity of ferns in secondary forests. View article

Conservation Awareness on Community Use Zone (CUZ) by Local Communities in Crocker Range Park, Sabah, Malaysia
Andy R. Mojiol; Maureen J. Tapuong; Walter Lintangah; Ludi Apin; Jephte Sompud. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 85 - 92.
Abstract The Parks Enactment 1984 prohibits any human activities in the parks’ area as to conserve the natural ecosystem, but in fact, there is the existence of some community living inside the area and practicing cultivation. Community Use Zone (CUZ) is a management option in an attempt to strike a balance between the conservation priorities of the park and the livelihoods of the local communities who depend on the forest for survival. This study determined the relationship between crops planted within the CUZ area and its contributions to the local communities’ livelihood. Furthermore, also determined the perception and conservation awareness of local community. The data was collected by face-to-face interview with closed and open-ended structured questions. Information was also obtained through field observations. Percentage, mean and range were used to summarize the results. The major crops identified are permanent crops such as rubber trees and fruit trees. Cash crops such as vegetables, cocoa and coffee trees were cultivated as sources of income of the farmers in Kg. Mongool Baru Ulu Senagang, Keningau/Tenom. Rubber trees contributed the highest revenue followed by fruit trees (such as durian, langsat, rambutan), cocoa, and vegetables. The study showed that the local communities of the village highly agree with the existence of issues that related to the forest conservation. The CUZ area is identified as a management tool that integrates the survival and livelihood of the local communities. It is therefore highly recommended to be practiced, but also need further research to enhance the management approach of CUZ. View article

Evaluation of Tourists Satisfaction Towards Firefly Industry in Sabah Using Importance-performance Analysis Model
Syazlina Saib; Mahadimenakbar Mohamed Dawood; Fiffy Hanisdah Saikim. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 93 - 100.
Abstract This paper focuses on the human dimensions of the firefly watching experience in Sabah with the using of Importance-performance analysis (IPA). The objectives are to investigate the motivations of tourists participating in firefly tours and to assess tourist’s satisfaction with the environmental and tour services offered in Sabah using IPA analysis. The methods included site-based distribution of questionnaire to firefly tour participants at several firefly-watching sites in Sabah. Next, the importance-performance analysis was performed using the importance and satisfaction mean scores. The IPA analysis identified 10 environmental and tour features of management concern. Overall, respondents were very satisfied with the tourism industry in Sabah stating that they would recommend the tour (88.6%) to others. Most participants were very satisfied with the interest in firefly (78.8%), proximity to fireflies (55.92%) and the number of fireflies seen (54.29%). As conclusion, this study provides a greater understanding of tourist’s motivation and satisfaction towards the firefly-watching industry in Sabah with the assist of Importance-performance analysis model. View article

Biodegradation of Sabah Light Crude Oil by Locally Isolated Candida tropicalis RETL-Cr1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa BAS-Cr1
Laurencia Debbie Benard; Piakong Mohd Tuah. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 101 - 106.
Abstract Increases in demand of petroleum hydrocarbon across the world inevitably contributed to the oil pollution in marine environment. Biodegradation is a proven cost effective approach for treatment of polluted marine environment. This study was performed to assess the biodegradation of Sabah Light Crude Oil by locally isolated microorganisms, C. tropicalis and P. aeruginosa in simulated seawater condition. Efficiency comparison and rate of biodegradation between single strain and consortia were investigated in shake flask trials. Utilization of 5% (v/v) crude oil as sole carbon source can support growth of bacteria up to 28 days. Consortia culture of C. tropicalis and P. aeruginosa has the highest degradation of 50% while single culture was 40% and 30% respectively. GC-MS analysis showed degradation of n-alkane in crude oil after four weeks of incubation. Present consortia culture has the potential as potent petroleum hydrocarbon degrader in the marine environment due to its specific ability to metabolize hydrocarbons. View article

Removal of Phenol by Zeolite
Shazryenna Dalang; Piakong Mohd Tuah. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 107 - 113.
Abstract The adsorption of phenol by Zeolite was investigated to assess its possible use as an adsorbent. The adsorbent properties were tested on batch solutions containing minimum concentration of 3mM (282 ppm) and a maximum of 7mM (658ppm) phenol, at fixed temperature of 30°C without pH adjustment. The effect of the adsorbent dose, contact time and initial phenol concentration on the removal degree of phenol was investigated. Effect of the adsorbent dosages for the removal of phenol was carried out using adsorbent dosages ranging from 5g to 25g. After hours of adsorption, this experiment reveals that the phenol removal performance is varied based on the three parameters investigated. For IPC 3mM, 5mM and 7mM; 25g, 15g, 5g is considered as the optimum dosage with phenol removal of 49%, 67% and 68% respectively. The equilibrium sorption data was better explained by Langmuir isotherm model suggesting that the adsorption of phenol observed monolayer sorption pattern. View article

Distribution of Heavy Metals in Seawater and Surface Sediment in Coastal Area of Tuaran, Sabah
Wei Hsiang Tan; Rohana Tair; Siti Aishah Mohd Ali; Asdalifah Talibe; Fatin Sualin; Carolyn Payus. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 114 - 122.
Abstract Heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) were analyzed in seawater and surface sediment samples in coastal area of Tuaran, Sabah, Malaysia. Metal concentrations of these samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). The mean concentration of heavy metals Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd in surface sediment were 22.03, 6.49, 3.81, 2.63, and 0.40 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding mean concentration values in seawater were 5.56 x 10-3, 8.22 x 10-4, 7.70 x 10-4, 3.37 x 10-4 mg/L and below detection limit (BDL) for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Cr, respectively. The correlation test (p<0.01) showed that there was a strong correlation among the concentrations of heavy metals in sediment (r=0.936-0.770). While in different compartment, significant correlation (p<0.01) was showed only between Pb in seawater with Cr (r= 0.828), Cu (r=0.756), Pb (r=.739) and Zn (r=0.696) in sediment. According to the Malaysia Marine Water Quality Criteria and Standard (IMWQS) and Interim Sediment Quality guidelines (ISQGs), these heavy metals concentrations are in the range of acceptance limit, except Pb in seawater was considered slightly polluted. View article

Nocturnal Terrestrial Mammals Population in Sabah Forest Industries (SFI) Forest Plantation, Sipitang
Jephte Sompud; Su-Hui Lu; Daniel Pamin; Cynthia Boon Sompud; Andy Russel Mojiol. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 123 - 129.
Abstract Biodiversity conservation has been given a significant emphasis in recent years in forest plantation establishment. This study investigates the terrestrial nocturnal mammals in the forest plantations of Acacia mangium, Sabah Forest Industries Sdn. Bhd. Sipitang, Sabah under the FMU 7. The main objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary assessment of nocturnal terrestrial mammals. Two methods that were used for the study were walk spotlight counts and vehicle spotlight counts. Data was analysed using Shannon-Weiner (H’) and Simpson’s Index of Diversity (1-D). King’s census method was used to calculate the population density. The study was conducted from the 1st -21st August 2015. There were no sightings during the walk spotlight counts survey. During the vehicle spotlight counts survey, three common palm civets and one smooth tooth palm civet were recorded. Results from the diversity index that was obtained from vehicle spotlight counts survey was H’=0.56 and 1-D=0.5. The encounter rate with hunters during the night survey were much higher as compared to the observed terrestrial mammals. The population density of nocturnal mammals was very low in our study site. The high encounter rate of hunters during the study indicates high hunting pressure that might primarily cause the observed results. There is a need to initiate the conservation of nocturnal mammals in the site, as it contributes to the ecosystem balance in forest plantations. View article

The Comparison of Birds Population in Two Years and Eight Years Old Acacia mangium Plantation at Sabah Forest Industries (SFI), Sipitang
Jephte Sompud; Woon-Jah Lee; Sze-Lue Kee; Cynthia Boon Sompud. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 130 - 135.
Abstract Forest plantation and plantation plays an important role to provide secondary habitat for wildlife, including birds. One of the factors that might influence the avian population is different age or vegetation structure. The purpose of this research is to compare the bird population density and diversity in 2-year and 8-year mangium plantation. The study was conducted from 1st - 21st August 2015 at SFI in Mendulong and Lakutan Estate. Two types of surveys were conducted, i.e., bird surveys and A. mangium vegetation surveys. Bird survey and vegetation survey were conducted using point count method. For A. mangium surveys, five plots of 10 x 100 metres were established at each age class. Shannon-Weiner (H’) and Simpson diversity index (1-D) were used to calculate the bird species diversity. The Population density of bird was estimated by using software Distance 6.2. The results shows that there was a very significant difference between the bird species diversity between the population at 2-year (H’= 3.24) and 8-year (H’= 2.93) mangium plantation (T-test, p=0.001). Bird population density in 8-year mangium plantation (40.37 indv/ha) has a prominently higher density compared to 2-year mangium plantation (17.71 indv/ha). The stem density, basal area and average tree height in 8-year mangium plantation was higher as compared to the 2-year mangium. Avian population density at older age class mangium plantation was significantly higher as compared to the younger age class due to the more complex vegetation in older age class mangium plantation. The avian species diversity at 2-year was higher than the 8-year due to the higher ground elevation, wider range of habitat variability and the closer proximity to the conservation SFI area. A further study is recommended to investigate the ecological interactions, between the conservation areas with the forest plantation areas. View article

The Correlations between Bird Relative Abundance with the Stem Density in Two Years Old Acacia mangium Plantation at Sabah Forest Industries, Sipitang
Jephte Sompud; Sze-Lue Kee; Cynthia Boon Sompud; Emily A. Gilbert; Oswald @ Aisat Igau. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 136 - 142.
Abstract Avian population is one of the components of biodiversity that is affected by the loss of the natural forest. Acacia mangium is one of the exotic species that is mainly planted in Sabah Forest Industries (SFI) in order to meet the demand of pulp and paper supply. Due to the fast growing ability of mangium species, the tree stand density in Mendulong Estate is relatively high. This research was conducted to investigate the influence of tree stem density toward the avian population in 2-years age Acacia mangium forest plantation, SFI. Bird survey was conducted using point count method and binocular with 10 (magnification) X 40 (objective size) was used for direct observation. A positive correlation between tree stem density and bird population was obtained via Pearson’s correlation (r=0.394, p=0.031). This study shows that increasing of tree stem density can positively influence the avian population significantly. View article

Growth performance of spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus in land-based Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) system
Milennie Vialantine Sumbing; Sujjat Al-Azad; Abentin Estim; Saleem Mustafa. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 143 - 149.
Abstract Aquaculture waste in the form of particulate organic matter and inorganic nutrients produces negative impacts when released to the environment. Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) system is gaining importance for reasons of its environmental compatibility and quality of yield. The purpose of this study is to compare growth performance of a popular specis of spiny lobster in two different rearing systems. These were modeled based on recirculating system (RS) and flow-through system (FTS). Spiny lobster (Panulirus ornatus), sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra) and seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) were used in the trials in both these systems. Water flow rate was maintained at 0.08 ± 0.1 L/sec. The stocking rate was 5 specimens / tank for spiny lobster (mean weight of 151.44 ± 7.14 g) and sea cucumber (mean weight of 32.16 ± 1.40 g), while mean initial biomass for seaweed was 500.65 ± 1.76 g/tank. Trials were conducted for 10 weeks. The results indicated that the SGR of lobster was not significantly different (p>0.05) in FTS (0.125 % day-1) and in RS (0.096 % day-1). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the survival of spiny lobster in FTS and RS. The survival rate of spiny lobster was 93.3 % and 80.0 % in FTS and RS, respectively. The inorganic nutrients, namely ammonia (NH3), nitrite (NO2), nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in RS than in FTS. Evidently, the FTS is the better option for culture in terms of efficiency of water quality remediation and growth of the stocked species. View article

Aquaculture in Malaysia: A Short Review on Current Policy and Legislation
Isaac Wayne Witus; Leong Wan Vun. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 150 - 154.
Abstract Aquaculture sector has shown an increasing trend in production outputs and values in the past few decades in Malaysia. Thus, environmental protection and preservation should be made priority in aquaculture development to ensure a more sustainable future. This paper attempts to provide a brief review on the major policies and legislations governing the aquaculture sector and the environment in Malaysia. Unlike its predecessors, the current agricultural policy, the National Agro-Food Policy 2011-2020, has made sustainable agricultural developments as one of its key thrusts. For the aquaculture sector, good practices in aquaculture activities are compulsory under the Aquaculture Industry Zone. However, the path towards sustainability as envisioned by the policy requires cooperation from all stakeholders in the aquaculture sector. The laws governing the aquaculture sector do include provisions for environmental protection, however, they are very limited in that environmental concerns are primarily addressed through the formulation of aquaculture plans without any specifics on environmental protection. View article

GC-MS Analysis of Strobilanthes crispus Plants and Callus
Bo Eng Cheong; Nur Aina Zakaria; Angelina Ying Fang Cheng; Peik Lin Teoh. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 155 - 161.
Abstract Strobilanthes crispus or locally known as “bayam karang”, “pecah kaca”, “jin batu” and “pecah beling” in Malaysia, has been traditionally used to increase immune system, treating kidney stones, treatment of diabetes mellitus, treatment of high blood pressure and treatment of wound. Studies examining the phytochemical constituents reported that the leaves of this plant contain ester glycosidic compound of caffeic acid, -voumaric acid, vanilic acid, ferulic acid, syringic acids, sitosterol, campesterol, hexadecanoic acid, methylester, lupeol, phytol, stigmasterol, flavonoid compounds such as (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, and etc. While most of the literatures focused on the chemical compounds present in the leaves of S. crispus, none have been reported for the phytochemical constituents of the whole S. crispus plant including the leaf, stem, root or flower part. Besides, there is also lacking report on the tissue culture generated from this plant too. Thus, this study was carried out to profile the leaves, stems and roots and callus cultures of S. crispus using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach. Results revealed that this plant is rich with squalene, phytosterols such as stigmasterols and derivatives, sito-sterol, campesterols, as well as triterpenoids such as lupeol, amyrin and betulin. View article

In Vitro Propagation of Zingiber officinale Rosc. 'Tambunan'
Devina David; Teoh Yan Ji; Jualang Azlan Gansau. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 162 - 167.
Abstract Rhizome buds of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. ‘Tambunan’) were sterilized and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of NAA and BAP hormones (1-3 mg/L) to induce shoot multiplication and rooting formation. Shoot formation was first observed on treatment of 3.0 mg/L BAP + 1.0 mg/L NAA after 7 days of culture. This treatment also promote the highest number of proliferated shoots, 6.14 ± 0.91 shootlets per explant, with an average shoot length of 1.69 ± 0.17 cm observed after 10 weeks of culture. Rooting of ginger plantlets were significantly initiated on medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L NAA. This treatment induced up to 34.40 ± 1.81 roots per explant with an average length of 4.52 ± 0.20 cm after 10 weeks of culture. Plantlets were successfully acclimatized in pot containing medium mixture of sand and clay (1:4) with 64% of survivality after transplanted for 3 weeks. View article

Aboveground Carbon Stock Potential of Teak (Tectona grandis) under Different Land Use System in Balung Plantation, Tawau Sabah
Daniel James; Mui-How Phua; Normah Awang Besar; Mazlin Mokhtar. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 168 - 175.
Abstract Assessment of aboveground carbon stock in different teak plantation systems was conducted in Balung River Plantation, Tawau, Sabah. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of teak as the main tree components to increase the above ground carbon stock in different land use system. The above ground carbon stock of agroforestry and mixed plantation system of teak (Tectona grandis) were compared with natural forest and monoculture plantation of the species. The agroforestry combinations investigated are agroforestry system 1, teak (18 years) with snake fruit (8 years) and agarwood (8 years); agroforestry system 2, teak (17 years) with coffee (14 years); and also mixed timber plantation system, teak (18 years) with agarwood (8 years); while 20 years teak monoculture plantation and natural forest reserve was set up as a control. A random systematic sampling method was used in conducting field inventory. The methodologies used include the measurement of height and diameter breast height (DBH) of trees within a 50 m x 50 m plot dimension (for plantation) and 30 m x 30 m (forest). Allometric equations were used to derive the field measured attributes into stand biomass while carbon stock was estimated as 50 percent from the total biomass. The result shows the accumulation of carbon stock goes in the following order: forest reserve (213.84 t C/ha) > mixed timber plantation (69.94 t C ha-1) > agroforestry system 2 (37.75 t C/ha) > agroforestry system 1 (37.34 t C/ha) > teak monoculture (34.53 t C/ha) witnessing the teak trees to increase the total aboveground carbon stock in agroforestry and mixed timber plantation system by more than 60 percent. This study suggested that teak has great potential in transforming a low biomass land use into a carbon-rich tree based systems. View article

Sensitive Determination of Tartrazine (E 102) Based on Chitosan/Nanoparticles/MWCNTs Modified Gold Electrode in Food and Beverage Products
Rovina Kobun; Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee; Sharifudin MD Shaarani. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 176 - 180.
Abstract Food dyes can be categorized into natural and synthetic color. Tartrazine (E 102) which belong to the family of azo dyes and commonly used in food industry. Tartrazine imparts positive and negative benefits as well, by giving attractive physical appearance and consumer acceptance for over centuries. However, excessively intake of food Tartrazine can cause toxicity and pathogenicity to human. Due to arising of the health issues to mankind, researchers gave attentions for determination of Tartrazine by using analytical and advance methods. Currently, there are several analytical methods available, however, these methods are required skilled persons, time consuming and high cost. Herein, an electrochemical sensor was developed based on the combination of nanomaterials (chitosan, calcium nanoparticles and multiwall carbon nanotubes) for detection of Tartrazine. Electrochemical behavior of the modified gold electrode in the presence of Tartrazine was studied by using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Under optimal conditions, the DPV was detected with different concentrations of Tartrazine in the range of 0.1 to 10 ppm, with low detection limit (3.3σ/s). View article

Screening of Isolated Rhizospheric Bacteria of Pittosporum resiniferum Hemsl With Toluene
Hanirah Ramli; Piakong Mohd. Tuah; Syaufi Lamjin. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 181 - 186.
Abstract Toluene are hazardous man-made hydrocarbon. This hydrocarbon can be degraded using biological approach. In the past research, the bacteria were isolated and characterized in terms of morphology. Based on screening on screening result,TSArp- Cr3, TSArp- Cr4, TSArp- Cr5, TSArp- Cr6 able to grow on 3 different concentration of toluene. Strain TSArp- Cr6 shows the best reading as it has ascending number bacterial population as the concentration of toluene increased compared to the rest three strains. View article

Optimization Assay of Enzymatic Biosensors for Determination of Carbaryl Pesticides
Anwar Samsidar; Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee; Sharifudin MD Shaarani. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 187 - 192.
Abstract Pesticides are chemicals used worldwide to destroy or control insects, fungi, and other pests. In agriculture, farmers use numerous pesticides to protect seeds and crops. Application of pesticides compounds has indeed significantly increased the yield of agricultural products such as vegetables and fruits. The excessive use of pesticides somehow negatively affects both human and environment. The bioaccumulation characteristic has allowed them to accumulate and remain persistent in the environment for a long period. The presence of pesticides in the environment is particularly hazardous, and prolonged exposure may leads to several health problems like asthma attacks, skin rashes and neurological diseases. Carbaryl is one of the most widely used pesticides due to its powerful effect and low cost. At present, pesticides are detected through conventional analytical techniques. However, such techniques requires high skills personnel, expensive instruments and time-consuming. A demand for simple, fast and effective method is necessary for pesticide detection. This lead to the development of enzymatic biosensor which the objective is to immobilize butyrycholinesterase enzyme based on chitosan onto the glassy carbon electrode via cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Optimization of the experimental parameters for the biosensor performance was conducted using cyclic voltammetry which includes pH, time, scan rate and the effect of methylene blue. Upon the optimizations, it found that pH7 of electrolyte solution, 40s of response time and 50mVs-1 was identified to provide the optimum conditions for the proposed biosensor that potentially can be used as a tool for pesticide detection. The optimized parameters will be employed for further experiments for designation of sensitive enzymatic biosensor for detection of pesticides from the vegetables. View article

Implications of Inappropriate Storage Temperatures in Harvested Green Coffee (Robusta Sp.) Beans to Antioxidant Properties and Polyphenol Oxidase Activity
Siva Raseetha; Noor-Azlin Abdullah. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 193 - 202.
Abstract The effects of various storage temperatures on antioxidant properties and enzyme activity of green coffee beans were evaluated during storage. The green coffee beans were harvested and stored at different storage temperatures of 35 ˚C, 26 ˚C and 9 ˚C. Lower storage temperature (9 ˚C) greatly preserved the reduction of phenolics and antioxidant capacity detected using FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) which was 38.20 mg TE/g, total phenolic content (TPC) which was 38.20 mg GAE/g and DPPH (Radical Scavenging Effect) which was 82.56%. Temperature 9 ˚C also retained the moisture of the green coffee beans up to 54.31% at day 5. For enzyme activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), the lower temperature inactivated the enzyme which resulted in lower activity of the enzyme stored at temperature 9 ˚C which was 0.82 U/g followed by 0.90 U/g and 1.03 U/g for 26 ˚C and 35 ˚C at day 1 of storage. However, green coffee beans stored at 9 ˚C showed some external chilling injury symptoms starting from day 7 of the storage. The phenolics and antioxidants activity in green coffee beans during storage decreased with increase of storage temperature starting from 9 ˚C, 26 ˚C and 35 ˚C. While the PPO activity increased with increase of storage temperature. View article

Quantitative Analysis of Quercetin in Various Parts of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl Extracts
Noorehan Rastaon; Piakong Mohd Tuah. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 203 - 208.
Abstract Phaleria macrocarpa, which is also known as Mahkota Dewa, is one of native Indonesian plants. There are a number of findings associate this plant with anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer attributes. This study is the first stage of on-going research to perform phytochemical analysis and to identify the antimicrobial property of P. macrocarpa against pathogenic bacteria and yeast. In particular, quantitative analysis of flavonoids of various parts of P. macrocarpa was the main purpose of this study. Phytochemical screening of P. macrocarpa leaf, stalk, fruit, and seed showed the existence of flavonoid. The amounts of flavonoid quercetin in various parts of P. macrocarpa has been determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with UV detection using 15 cm × 4.6 mm, 10 μm particle, Ascentis™ C18 column. The quantitative analysis of quercetin of P. macrocarpa crude extracts revealed that stalk contained the highest amount of quercetin (1670.40 ± 13.48 μg ml-1), followed by fruit (1426.72 ± 22.17 μg ml-1), leaf (494.47 ± 30.46 μg ml-1), and seed extracts (313.22 ± 61.81 μg ml-1). The presence of phytochemicals in P. macrocarpa may be responsible for its anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities and may serve as a substitute for synthetic drugs. View article

The Effect of Soil Particle Size on the Soil Organic Matter and the Abundance of Sand Bubbler Crab Scopimera globosa at Tanjung Aru Beach, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
Khairunnisa Effendy; Patricia Natin. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 209 - 217.
Abstract Sandy beach area is an important ecosystem for most beach and intertidal animals especially for the crustaceans such as crabs and clams. The aim for this study is to identify the relationship of the soil particle size, soil organic matter and the abundance of sand bubbler crab, Scopimera globosa. This study was conducted at Tanjung Aru Beach 1, Tanjung Aru Beach 2 and Tanjung Aru Beach 3, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Three samplings were conducted from 11th August until 5th October 2015. The soil particle size was determined using sieving method while the soil organic matter was determined using the loss-on-ignition (LOI) method. The abundance of S. globosa was calculated based on the number of S. globosa obtained from the sampling. Results showed that positive correlation can be seen in the relationship of sand particle size on the soil organic matter (n = 81, r = 0.447, p < 0.05) and the abundance of S. globosa (n = 81, r = 0.311, p < 0.05). Besides, the relationship of soil organic matter and the abundance of S. globosa also showed positive correlation (n = 81, r = 0.361, p < 0.05). However, the relationship occur inversely for silt and clay whereby both showed negative correlation on soil organic matter (n = 81, r = -0.447 and -0.53, p < 0.05) and the abundance of S. globosa (n = 81, r = -0.310 and -0.431, p < 0.05). For recommendation, in order to study on the distribution of different types of soil particle size, soil organic matter and abundance of any crustaceans at the beach area, other factors such as tidal level, wave actions and vegetation in the area should be included because they also affect the distributions. View article

Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Mud Clam (Polymesoda erosa) and its Ambient Medium in the Coastal Area of Putatan and Tuaran, Sabah
Siti Aishah Mohd Ali; Yoke Mun Yep. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 218 - 226.
Abstract Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC) content and particle size were investigated in mud clam (Polymedosa erosa) and sediment in the coastal area of Putatan and Tuaran, Sabah. Mud clams and sediments were collected by hand-picking and trowel in five stations respectively for both coastal area. Mud clams and sediment samples were extracted for TPH using standard method APHA 5520 and analyzed using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The determination of TOC content was based on United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/ MAP Athens (2006). The overall range of TPH concentrations in mud clam and sediments in both study areas were recorded at 0.72 – 2.16 mg/kg dw and 0.15 – 0.62 mg/kg dw Miri crude oil equivalents, respectively. The overall mean and range of TOC content from coastal area of Putatan and Tuaran were 9.30% (5.37 – 15.82%) and 7.98% (4.21 – 12.93%) respectively and sandy particles are majority in these two sites. In the meantime, the statistical analysis by Pearson correlation showed a moderately positive correlation with coefficient for TPH concentration in mud clam and sediment (r=0.6340 for Putatan; r=0.6978 for Tuaran), meanwhile showed a strong positive correlation for TPH concentration and TOC content in sediment (r=0.9637 for Putatan; r=0.9340 for Tuaran). Therefore, TOC can be used as the screening for TPH in sediment for both areas. View article

Extraction and Characterization of Chitosan from Shrimp Shell Waste in Sabah
Flornica Alca Ahing; Newati Wid. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 227 - 237.
Abstract Chitin is the most widespread renewable natural sources following cellulose and the main source of chitin is crustacean waste. Chitosan which is a derivative of chitin after the process of deacetylation has multiple of commercial and possible medical uses based on its degree of deacetylation. This research aims to study the production of chitosan from shrimp shell waste in Sabah and characterize the chitosan quality which includes parameters including moisture content, solubility, and degree of deacetylation (DDA). The results obtained from this study show that moisture content ranged from 4-7%, while the solubility of chitosan achieved up to 90%. The DDA value obtained was high ranged from 70-85%. Based on these three characteristics, shrimp shell waste in Sabah can achieved chitosan standard quality for industrial application by performing traditional method of deproteination, demineralization and deacetylation. View article

Application of Industrial Cement in the Durability of Degradable Bioplastic Pot
Dora binti Basil Gungguk; Kang Chiang Liew. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 238 - 243.
Abstract This paper presented the result of an experimental study investigating the durability of degradable bioplastic pot with additive cement industry. The ratios of degradable bioplastic were varied from B10%:N90%, B30%:N70%, B50%:N50%, B70%:N30 and B10%:N90% and mixed with 6%, 9% and 12% of industrial cement. Pots were prepared, tested for 90 days for Soil Burial Test in order to determine the biodegradability rate of pot and tested in the laboratory for Water Absorption Test in order to determine the presence of industrial cement as an additive decrease the moisture absorption capacity of the degradable bioplastic. The result of weight loss percentage shows that the lowest percentage of weight loss of soil burial test above ground was 31.80% for B10%:N90% mixed with 12% industrial cement. The highest weight loss percentage 100% was B90%:N10% mixed with 6% below ground after 90 days of soil burial test. The highest 75% of water absorption percentage of degradable bioplastic was B90%:N10% mixed with 6% industrial cement and the lowest 12% of water absorption percentage was B10%:N90% mixed with 12% industrial cement. View article

Antibacterial and Phytochemical Investigations of Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae) From Sabah, Malaysia
Azlinah Matawali; Lee Ping Chin; How Siew Eng; Jualang Azlan Gansau. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 244 - 250.
Abstract Previous study on Mikania micrantha had unveiled its importance as protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibitor and cytotoxic agent against HL60 cells. The present study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial properties and to determine the phytochemicals content of M. micrantha. Crude methanolic extracts from powdered dry samples were partitioned using liquid-liquid separation technique and further fractionated using silica gel column chromatography to yield six partitionates and 5 fractions. All partitionates and fractions were challenged with Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and the performances are compared with standard antibiotics. The results revealed that four partitionates (ME, CE, EAE and CME) possessed good antibacterial properties. While, fraction F1 from column chromatography is showing convincing activities towards tested bacteria. Phytochemical tests of the crude extracts, partitionates and fractions had detected the presence of tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids. This result supports the potential of this plant species used as a new chemotherapeutic drug. View article

Indoor Coarse and Fine Particulates in Elementary Urban Schools
Carolyn Payus; Chrystalyziana Venchin; Norela Sulaiman. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 251 - 256.
Abstract The issue of more elementary children is seen to have respiratory sickness such as asthma especially the younger ones age 5-13 years old is highlighted in this research. By fact 20 - 38% of acute pediatric admissions in the country and the third most common death in children between the age of 1 and 13 are caused by respiratory illness. Children are frail during their growth because of their immature immune systems; makes them more susceptible to the health effects of air pollution compare to adults. The indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms plays a major role in the children health since they spend at least 71% of their time in school building, approximately seven or more hours a day in school. This research aims to assess the elementary schools IAQ profile using filter-based sampler in Kota Kinabalu, with 8 hours measurement time for total twelve sampling days. Overall, the average concentration of coarse and fine particulates in weekdays found higher compared to weekends with average PM0.3 312.09±73.28µg/m3 (weekdays) and 156.77±41.56µg/m3 (weekends); PM2.0 5.71±1.80µg/m3 (weekdays) and 1.37±0.44µg/m3 (weekends), and PM5.0 1.45±0.68µg/m3 (weekdays) and 0.06±0.03µg/m3 (weekends). The I/O ratio indicates that major of the indoor airborne particulates are not generated from the outdoors but predominantly from indoor source namely from bio effluents from occupants and their activities, building materials, furnishings and ventilation rates. The importance of the study is to provide a baseline data in developing the IAQ standard for children, thus improvement for a better school facility for the children. View article

Properties of Bioplastic Sheets Made from Different Types of Starch Incorporated With Recycled Newspaper Pulp
Rahmatiah Al Faruqy M Sujuthi; Kang Chang Liew. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 257 - 264.
Abstract The use of biodegradable material based on natural polysaccharides, particularly starch helps to reduce the usage of non-degradable materials. In this study, three types of starch were used to produce the bioplastic sheets (cassava, corn and potato). The sheets were produced with the mixture of bioplastic (B) incorporated with recycled newspaper pulp fibre (N) at four different ratios (newspaper pulp fibres:bioplastic) N50%:B50%, N30%: B70%, N10%:B90% and N0%:B100%. Water absorption and tensile properties were investigated for these bioplastic sheets which were done in room temperature. Cassava-based bioplastic sheet had the worst water repellent while corn starch-based bioplastic sheets had the lowest water absorption percentage. Based on the ratios, bioplastic sheet N30%:B70% shows the lowest percentage of water absorption. Result also showed that as the amount of bioplastic ratio increase, the tensile strength decrease. The optimum mixture of fibres/bioplastic was N50%:B50% which obtained highest percentage of tensile strength. Elongation at break was increased as the bioplastic increased. View article

Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Food Waste and Palm Oil Mill Effluent for Phosphorus Recovery: Effect on Reduction of Total Solids, Volatile Solids and Cations
Rafidah Selaman; Newati Wid. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 265 - 270.
Abstract Food waste (FW) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) with significant nutrients contents were successfully digested anaerobically for phosphorus recovery. Anaerobic co-digestion is a treatment that can enhance the reduction of total solid and volatile solid before disposed onto landfill. The presence of sodium and potassium ions may affect phosphorus recovery efficiency either by stimulating the phosphorus release or stabilizing the polyphosphate compounds. Dilution of sodium and potassium ions also can be achieved through this treatment method. The experiment was performed under different composition of FW and POME. The optimum mixing of FW and POME at ratio 70:30 showed the highest solid waste and volatile solid reductions which values were 45% and 41%, respectively. Further study on cations reduction was investigated and the results found that co-digestion process was able to reduce potassium and sodium ions concentration at 85.8% and 92.2%, respectively. The ions reduction may contribute to phosphorus recovery which achieved as high as 247% recovery. View article

Harvested Rainwater Quality Assessment on the Effects of Roof Materials to the First Flush Runoff
Janice Lynn Ayog; Salinah Dullah; Rosdianah Ramli. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 271 - 276.
Abstract This study focuses on the effects on roofing materials on the first flush runoff quality. An experimental rainwater harvesting system was designed and built on the compound of the Civil Engineering Hydraulic Laboratory, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, to assess the effects of two different types of roofs - locally-sourced nipah-thatched roof and galvanized iron roof – on the quality of the harvested rainwater in the university. The first flush runoff from the rainwater collected on the 8th June 2015 was analysed for four water quality parameters, namely pH, total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity and dissolved oxygen (DO). The results obtained from this study were then checked to the water quality threshold limit of the Interim National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (INWQS) and compared to selected previous studies. It is found that the first flush runoff quality for the nipah-thatched and the galvanized iron roofs were relatively good, except for turbidity (nipah-thatched roof only) and DO. The pH concentration levels from this study is in neutral range (5-7) as most previous researches, but the TSS concentration levels were relatively lower. The turbidity and DO levels of the galvanized iron roof were quite similar with other roofs, however the nipah-thatched roof had higher concentration levels as compared to the previous studies. As the water quality results could be influenced by the roof age, further investigation will be done on this factor to the harvested rainwater quality. View article

Basic Architecture and Applications of DNA Computing
Nordiana Rajaee; Azham Zulkharnain; Awang Ahmad Sallehin Awang Hussaini. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 277 - 282.
Abstract DNA computing is a new computing paradigm utilizing actual DNA oligonucleotides to do computation by employing biomolecular tools to get the reaction and outputs extraction. In this paper, we introduce basic architecture of DNA computing. Brief explanation on the biomolecular tools employed in DNA computing are also included, and its various applications in many fields are also discussed. View article

Difficulties Experience by Science Foundation Students on Basic Mendelian Genetics Topic: A Preliminary Study
Fadzilah Awang-Kanak; Makdi Masnoddin; Azlinah Matawali; Muhamad Azlan Daud; Nur Ramziahrazanah Jumat. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 283 - 290.
Abstract This paper aims to report and identify the difficulties experienced by Science Foundation students in understanding basic Mendelian Genetics based on their ability to solve three types of basic Mendelian Genetics problems. The problems given are; a monohybrid cross and two dihybrid cross cases. Result shown that 52.6% students were able to solve all the given problems while another 47.4 % had difficulties to solve at least one of the given problems. Among the students that had difficulties to solve the given problems, 4.4% students had difficulties to solve Type 1 problem, 13.3% students had difficulties to solve Type 2 problem, 15.6% students had difficulties to solve Type 3 problem, 8.9% students that had difficulties to solve both Type 1 and 3 problems, 40% students had difficulties to solve both dihybrid cross Type 2 and 3 problems, and 17.8% students were unable to solve all the given problems. E(X) or number of questions that the Science Foundation students had difficulties to solve is 0.874. The standard deviation for number of questions that the Science Foundation students had difficulties to solve is 1.842. In solving basic Mendelian Genetics problems, we expected students were able to solve the problems given and also can clarify the techniques used in term of genetic context. The initial finding reported in this study may be used to have a better understanding on students’ ability and problem solving skills in learning genetics. View article

Cracking of the Merkle–Hellman Cryptosystem Using Genetic Algorithm
Zurab Kochladze; Lali Beselia. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 291 - 296.
Abstract The article considers the possibility of using genetic algorithms in cryptanalysis, namely for cracking the Merkle-Hellman cryptosystem. The obtained analysis results lead us to conclusion that the use of genetic algorithms in cryptanalysis may be effective. For example, the genetic algorithm described in the article finds a cipher key faster than the well-known Shamir algorithm. View article

Preliminary evaluation of CETP inhibition from selected Garcinia species
Suraya Abdul Sani; Christopher Wiart; Teng Jin Khoo. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(1-2), 297 - 305.
Abstract Two types of Garcinia species which are Garcinia parvifolia and Garcinia atroviridis Griff ex T. Anders were selected and being labelled as UNMC 45L, UNMC 78T and UNMC 78T based on the folklore medicine ‘myths’ that claiming Garcinia species has the ability to be anti-cholesterol. All of these three plant parts were evaluated for therapeutic potential as CETP inhibitors by using CETP Inhibitor drug screening kit. Extraction of crude material from plants was performed via gradient maceration in hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. All of the extracts show significant inhibition towards CETP activity. Ethanol extracts of UNMC 45L shows greatest inhibition as the IC50 is 15.43 ± 0.4212 mg/ml followed by Hexane extract and Ethyl Acetate extracts of UNMC 78L which are 28.70 ± 1.320 mg/ml and 28.49 ± 1.126 mg/ml respectively. However, all of the extracts of UNMC 78T shows lowest inhibition towards CETP activity and it is assumed that more bioactive compound could be present in the leaves compare to twigs. The positive findings from this study suggest that Garcinia species was effective natural inhibitors towards CETP. View article

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