Volume 3, Issue No 2-2, Marine Science and Aquaculture

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I No 1 II No 1-2 II No 2 II No 2-2 (this issue) II No 3 I

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Diversity and Distribution of Coral Lifeforms in Tioman Island
Kharina Kamarumtham; Zuhairi Ahmad; Nor Hidayah Halid; Shahbudin Saad; Mohd Fikri Akmal Khodzori; Muhammad Hamizan Yusof; Muhammad Faiz Muhammad Hanafiah. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(2-2), 367 - 373
Abstract Assessing coral morphology is to predict coral reefs conservation value. Coral lifeforms at four stations in Tioman Island were observed and recorded by using Coral Video Transect (CVT) method. The stations were Renggis and Terdau in the west coast and Benuang and Teluk Dalam in the east coast of Tioman Island. The captured images were analyzed using Coral Point Count with Excel extension (CPCe) software to find out the diversity and distribution of coral lifeforms in each study area. Three stations obtained “good” condition of reef with more than 60% of live coral coverage and one station obtained “fair” reef condition. Generally, the most dominant coral lifeform in Tioman Island is Acropora branching followed by massive. Acropora branching was the most abundance lifeform in Renggis. Terdau was dominated by massive lifeform and in the East coast, Benuang plate was the most abundant lifeform. By using the coral morphology triangle, conservation value of reefs in all four stations was predicted using the percentage of coral lifeforms. Renggis and Teluk Dalam need to be conserved the most since the reefs are classified as ruderals (fast growing but very fragile). Reef in Benuang are classified as competitor. It grows slower than ruderal but has higher tolerance. Terdau’s reef is mix of all categories. View article

Gene Expression in the Biosynthesis of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) Toxins in Dinoflagellates: A Mini Review
Adrianne Suk Wai Leong; Ann Anton; Kenneth Francis Rodrigues; Grace Joy Wei Lie Chin. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(2-2), 374 - 381
Abstract Some dinoflagellates are known to synthesize saxitoxin (STX), a potent neurotoxin that causes severe paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). In addition, several freshwater species of cyanobacteria also synthesize the same toxin with the same biosynthetic pathway and genes responsible. This review focuses on the gene expression involved in the biosynthesis pathway of PSP toxins in dinoflagellates. The expression of the PSP biosynthetic genes have been identified in certain cyanobacteria and the dinoflagellate Alexandrium sp. with eight genes involved viz. sxtA, sxtB, sxtD, sxtG, sxtH/T, sxtI, sxtS and sxtU. sxtA, a unique starting gene, and sxtG, the second “core” gene appearing in the biosynthesis of PSP toxins are found in both cyanobacteria and Alexandrium sp. Three theories have been proposed to explain the origin of PSP toxin in dinoflagellates: I) the genes are produced by bacteria associated with the dinoflagellates, II) independent evolution III) horizontal gene transfer between cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. Useful information regarding the expression and function of genes involved in the STX biosynthesis pathway provides an understanding of toxin production and possible mitigation and public health management of STX poisoning. View article

The Effects of Stocking Density, Substrate and Coloration in Rearing Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Post Larvae
Hasnita Che Harun; Nora Azreena Ismail; Khairiyah Mat; Nor Dini Rusli; Tan Sze Huay; Muhd Hazizi Ismail; Hazreen Nita Khalid; Lee Seong Wei; Suniza Anis Mohamad. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(2-2), 382 - 387
Abstract Understanding Macrobrachium rosenbergii optimum condition and performance in aquaculture is important to optimize the design, management of tanks, and other culture conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stocking density, presence of substrate as well as coloration in rearing M. rosenbergii post larvae (PL). Three experiments were conducted for 28 days to determine 1) the effects of stocking density of 160 PL/Liter, 140 PL/Liter and 120 PL/Liter, 2) effects of presence of substrate and 3) application of colouration. Each treatment was run with untreated samples of M. rosenbergii at condition of 140 PL/Liter as control. Data obtained from the study were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) available from Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 19.0. The highest growth performance in the stocking density, substrate and coloring treatment was obtained in thr group 120 PL/liter (with substrate) with weight gain of 0.0775± 0.0132g and length gain of 11.0 ± 1.88 mm. The best survival percentage in the substrate and coloring treatment was obtained in the 120 PL/Liter (coloring) with 88.500 ± 3.78 %. There are no significant different (P≥0.05) among all treatments. The presence of substrate and coloring in rearing M. rosenbergii can be considered as optimum condition provided water quality maintenance. Presence of coloring is suitable to increase survival percentage for short period of time such as during transportation. Hence, it gives high survival percentage but did not benefit in term of growth. View article

Surface Sediment Particle Structure of Marudu Bay, Sabah, Malaysia
Muhammad Rashid Abdul Rahim; Ejria Saleh; Sujjat Al Azad; B. Mabel Manjaji-Matsumoto; Julian Ransangan. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(2-2), 388 - 392
Abstract Sediment can be classified into three major categories: sand, silt and clay, which has a crucial impact on bottom marine life. In other words, different marine organisms prefer different sediment particle structure and texture, reflecting energetics of transport and deposition processes in the water column. The aim of this study is to determine the surface sediment particle structure and its texture in Marudu Bay. Surface sediments were collected from 10 stations which covered the coastal (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST6 and ST10) and the middle (ST4, ST5, ST7, ST8 and ST9) areas of the bay by using the Ponar© (WILDCO®, 6 inch) grab sampler. Subsequently, the sediment samples were then analysed with LISST-Portable Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyser (Sequoila, WA). The results show coastal areas near river mouths have a coarser particle structure with very slightly clayey silty sand texture compared to stations away from river mouth. The pattern is consistent with the resuspension of finer particles from the sand, silt and clay within shallow turbulent coastal water, and transport across the deeper area of the bay. This finding can contribute to baseline information, and suggests that further understanding of the sediment hydrodynamic across the bay is required for management of the system. View article

The Effect of Current on Coral Growth Form in Selected Areas of Tioman Island, Pahang
Nor Hidayah Halid; Zuhairi Ahmad; Kharina Kamarumtham; Shahbudin Saad; Mohd Fikri Akmal Khodzori; Muhammad Faiz Muhammad Hanafiah; Muhammad Hamizan Yusof. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(2-2), 393 - 400
Abstract Current is a prominent event in the ocean and one of the significant factors that determine the construction of the reef ecosystem. Each individual reef has its unique growth form and the distribution is influenced by current in the particular localities. Interrelation between current and morphological response of coral growth was studied in selected location at Tioman Island. Acoustic Doppler current profile (ADCP) was deployed to collect data of current speed and current direction. MIKE 21 Flow model FM software was used to model the hydrodynamic pattern of the study area. The model was calibrated using secondary field current data with reasonable R2 value of 0.6096. Using the calibrated model, the mean current speed for two selected stations at the West coast of Tioman Island was 0.035 ms-1 and 0.172 ms-1; while the mean current speed for two selected stations at the East coast of Tioman Island was 0.030 ms-1 and 0.050 ms-1. Based on the coral growth form distribution at the study area, the type of growth forms at the west coast dominated by ACD and CM coral while in the east coast was dominated by ACD and CP coral respectively. Different growth forms of coral were emerged in response to different current speed. This study showed the distribution of coral growth forms were influenced by the current action. View article

Coastline Changes in Mantanani Besar Island, Sabah, Malaysia
Russel Felix Koiting; Ejria Saleh; John Madin; Fazliana Mustajap. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(2-2), 401 - 406
Abstract Coastline dominated by sandy beaches tends to change due to the processes of beach erosion and accretion. However, the coastline of an island is continuously changes due to direct exposure to physical forces from the sea and anthropogenic activities. At Mantanani Besar Island (west coast of Sabah), continuous beach erosion is among the major threats and a matter of concern by both islanders and tour operators. Therefore, this study aim at identifying the long-term coastline changes and the most dynamic coastline processes by detecting the pattern of beach modifications based on remote sensing images and photographs. The island was divided into four segments following the cardinal directions namely westward (seg 1), southward (seg 2), eastward (seg 3) and northward (seg 4). Aerial photos (1986, 1990, 2001 and 2013) and satellite image (2010) were analysed using ArcGIS Software Version 9.3. Results revealed that the island has undergone long-term coastline erosion (1986 to 2013) with the estimated total beach loss area of 168,113 m2. All these segments experienced more beach erosion than accretion where seg 2 had the highest beach loss, approximately 71,590 m2 followed by seg 4 (57,558 m2), seg 1 (23,008 m2) and seg 3 (15,957 m2). The most dynamic areas were at seg 3 which had experienced more beach processes. Impacts from both natural phenomenon and anthropogenic activities lead to different rates of erosion at each segment. Further study on hydrodynamic forces (winds, waves and currents) at Mantanani Besar Island is recommended to better understand the coastal processes. Studies on hydrodynamics and beach changes would provide baseline data that might be helpful in planning measures for protecting the island from further erosion. View article

Efficacy of Purple Non-sulfur Bacterium Afifella marina Strain ME to Control Dissolved Inorganic Nutrients in Aquaculture System
Sujjat Al Azad; Julian Ransangan. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(2-2), 407 - 412
Abstract Experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using locally isolated purple non-sulfur bacterium Afifella marina strain ME to improve the dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN) in Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus culture tank. The experiment was conducted for seven days without changing water. Ammonia (mg/L), nitrite (mg/L), nitrate (mg/L) and phosphate-phosphorus (mg/L) in the Tilapia culture tank were monitored. Sixteen tails of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles with mean weight of 0.7±0.05g were stocked in ten liter aquarium. Juveniles were fed with commercial feed twice daily by ad-libitum feeding method. Purple non-sulfur bacterium Afifella marina strain ME, and established probiotic commercial Bacillus with four inclusion levels, 0.005(g/L), 0.01(g/L), 0.02(g/L), and 0.03(g/L) were added everyday into culture tank. At the end of experiment no significant difference (P > 0.05) were observed among all the inclusion levels with the concentration of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate. The lowest concentration of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate were observed in both Afifella marina strain ME, and commercial Bacillus with the inclusion level of 0.03g/L. Obtained results were comparable with commercially established probiotics Bacillus sp. Locally isolated purple non-sulfur bacterium Afifella marina strain ME could be one of the potential candidate in controlling dissolved inorganic nutrients in aquaculture system. View article

Preliminary Impact Assessment of Seaweed Cultivation by the Coastal Communities in Sabah, Malaysia
Gaim James Lunkapis; Hagin Wilkerson Danny. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(2-2), 413 - 420
Abstract Seaweed is found in abundance and grows naturally in the east coast of Sabah. The local communities traditionally plant seaweed as part of their socio-economic activities. During the 10th Malaysia Plan or RMK-10 (2010-2015), this long endowed economic activity was identified to have a high yield potential and thereafter, was promoted as one of the most promising sectors in the National Key Economic Areas (NKEA) under the Entry Point Project (EPP 3). Substantial seaweed funding allocations were given to several agencies and thereafter, seaweed farming was promoted with a two-pronged strategy: to increase the national income and to improve the socio-economic conditions of the local communities. This research was aimed at looking at the impact of seaweed industries among the coastal communities, with a case study in Semporna, Sabah. The methods used were mostly qualitative, with data being collected through interviews, field observations, questionnaire forms and secondary references. The survey results showed that four systems are being used by the state to implement the seaweed industry. Each system has its own weaknesses and strengths, and has had a different impact on the economy of the state as well as on the local communities. The efficiency of each system was compared and evaluated. The lessons learned should be useful in enhancing the visibility of the seaweed industry in Malaysia. View article

Surface Chlorophyll Patchiness across Sepanggar Bay: Relationships with Turbidity and Depth
John Barry Gallagher; Chuan Chee Hoe; Muhammad Shazwan Bin Mohd Yusob; Chen Nuo Gen; Goh Yoke Mae. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(2-2), 421 - 426
Abstract The prevalence of harmful algal blooms (HABs), poses a considerable risk to public health and the livelihood of local fishers centred on Sepanggar Bay (Sabah). While HABs appear ostensibly during the NE Monsoon, there is no information on what may control their mesoscale distribution and production across Sepanggar Bay. For this study, we hypothesize that shallow sediment resuspension of a viable microphytobenthic population, along with potential germination of encysting harmful algae, control the mesoscale surface patchiness of chlorophyll-a across Sepanggar Bay. A ‘snap-shot’ over the NE Monsoon, of surface chlorophyll-a, together with turbidity and oxygen concentrations was produced from of 34 sampling stations chosen randomly across the bay’s regions. For rapid processing and measurement, chlorophyll-a, and turbidity were taken from surface colour reflectivity, using the phone app HydroColor™. The remaining variables surface temperature, salinity, and oxygen concentrations came from a probe. Both turbidity and chlorophyll-a showed considerable structure across the bay with depth. In general, there were good correlations between depth (inverse), turbidity (positive), and surface oxygen concentrations (positive) with chlorophyll-a across the bay, but with low chlorophyll-a outliers near a water village. The reasons behind the structure and the above correlations are elaborated in the paper. View article

Comparison of Two Edible Mushroom Extract as Aquaculture Feed Additive to Enhance Immune Response of Asian Seabass
Vivian Chong; Sujjat Al-Azad; Rossita Shapawi. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(2-2), 427 - 432
Abstract Limitation of antibiotic practice in aquaculture has created attention to uses of organic immuno-stimulant for growth and survival of juveniles with the development of immune system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two edible mushroom extracts, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Schizophyllum commune as feed additive in the diets of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) juvenile on serum antibody production. Three experimental diets were formulated with 1% inclusion of P. sajor caju (D1), S. commune (D2) and commercial diet without inclusion of mushroom additive was used as a control (D0). Asian seabass juveniles with average weight of 3±1 g were fed for 30 days. Each juveniles were challenged with 0.1ml bacteria suspension consisted of 108 cfu/ml of Vibrio harveyi. Mortality was observed for 10 days after fishes being challenged. Blood was collected before and on third day of challenged, and serum was used to determine antibody titre. Survival rate of D0, D1 and D2 was 60%, 55% and 80%, respectively. Serum agglutinating antibody titer of D2 significantly showed the highest antibody production followed by D1 and D0. Considering the good performance of S. commune in the present study, this mushroom can be considered as potential feed additive in the diets for enhancing immune response in Asian seabass juveniles challenged with V.harveyi. View article

Determination of PSP concentration in shellfish from Kuala Penyu, Sabah using HPLC method
Ghafur Rahim Mustakim; Ann Anton; Mohamad Samsur; Mohd Nor Azman Ayub. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(2-2), 433 - 438
Abstract Pyrodium bahamense var. compressum is the main causative algae that causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in Sabah. The most recent event occurred in 2013 when toxin levels of between 600 and 800 Mouse Unit (MU) were detected using the mouse bioassay method. However, the mouse bioassay method is not able to distinguish between the different PSP analogues and its concentration. This study was carried out to determine the PSP concentrations in shellfish 2 years after the bloom occurred using analytical methods. Two different species of shellfish (Perna viridis and Geloina sp) were collected from Tasek Sitopmok, Kuala Penyu, Sabah. Toxin from that shellfish tissues were extracted using 0.2 M HCL and analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with post column fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Results showed that tissue samples extracted from Geloina sp were free from any contamination of PSP toxin. Meanwhile Perna viridis extracted sample, showed the presence of PSP toxin (decarbamoyl derivatives) which is Gonyautoxin (GTX 4), with toxin content of 30μgeq/100g tissue. Regularly monitoring for PSP toxin is required using analytical methods such as the HPLC due to its capability to express the actual toxin concentration as well as being able to distinguish the different types of toxin derivatives. View article

Feeding Rates of Dominant Copepods on Phytoplankton in the Coastal Area of the Southwestern Okhotsk Sea
Nakagawa Yoshizumi; Kitamura Mitsuaki; Shiomoto Akihiro. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(2-2), 439 - 443
Abstract Copepods mainly plays a role of the secondary producers, who transfers energy and materials from the phytoplankton such as diatoms to higher trophic levels. Copepod feeding contributes to transferring them. Feeding experiments of dominant copepods Pseudocalanus newmani and Neocalanus plumchrus collected from the coastal area of the southwestern Okhotsk Sea on large phytoplankton were done by using the food removal method. Feeding rates of P. newmani were higher than those of N. plumchrus when Chl-a concentrations was same level. Our results suggest that P. newmani plays potentially an important role for linking between large phytoplankton and higher trophic organisms during highest phytoplankton production period in the coastal area of the southwestern Okhotsk Sea. View article

An Assessment of the Carrying Capacity of Sipadan Island Park, Sabah, Malaysia
Nasrulhakim Bin Maidin; B. Mabel Manjaji-Matsumoto; Muhammad Ali Bin Syed Hussein; Rimi Ripin. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(2-2), 444 - 448
Abstract Sipadan Island is a small oceanic island in Malaysia, and renowned as one of the world’s top ten dive destination. However, it was only recently that the island was gazetted as a Marine Protected Area. The aim of this study is to assess the carrying capacity of Sipadan Island Park. The objectives are to enumerate diver and dive frequency, and to record the presence and sighting rate of iconic fishes in each of the 11 established dive sites on Sipadan. The study was carried out monthly over a 12-month period in 2011 and 2012. In that period, we recorded a total of 66,243 dives, of which, more than one third (35%; n=23,215 dives) was in Barracuda Point alone. In comparison, the least popular dive site - West Ridge–North Point - recorded just 154 dives. Thus, Barracuda Point, along with three other sites are found to have greatly exceeded the carrying capacity of a dive site. Iconic fishes are present throughout the year, and their sighting rate was similar in all months (p>0.05). However, our data showed a significant correlation between popular dive sites and sightings of iconic fish (p<0.05). View article

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