Volume 3, Issue No 3, December 2016

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I No 1 II No 1-2 II No 2 II No 2-2 II No 3 (this issue) I

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Effects of Temperature and pH on Myrosinase Activity and Gluconasturtiin Hydrolysis Products in Watercress
Nurazilah Farhana Binti Aripin; Noumie Surugau. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(3), 449 - 454
Abstract Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) is a rich source of phenyl ethyl glucosinolate (PEGLS) (or gluconasturtiin). Depending on various factors, PEGLS is hydrolyzed enzymatically by the endogenous myrosinase into phenyl ethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and/or phenyl ethyl nitrile (PEN). Unlike PEN, PEITC is reported to possess anticancer activities. This paper described the effects of temperature (25, 45 and 65°C) and pH (3, 7 and 9) on myrosinase activity and hydrolysis products of PEGLS in watercress. The watercress samples were harvested from Kota Belud, Sabah. The hydrolysis products were extracted with dichloromethane and then analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). While myrosinase activity was calculated based on the reduction of standard sinigrin concentration (as substrate) after 20 mins of endogenous enzymatic reaction. The unreacted sinigrin was then extracted with pure water and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet (HPLC-UV). The results show that myrosinase activities were in the range of 1.21 – 1.23 mM min-1 with relatively higher at 45°C (1.23 mM min-1). Meanwhile, under the different pH (7 and 9), the myrosinase activities were slightly higher (1.35 – 1.36 mM min-1). As for the hydrolysis products, the highest concentrations of PEITC were recorded at 25°C (601.1 ppm) and pH 9 (561.1 ppm). PEITC concentration was much higher than PEN in all these conditions. The results suggest that mild temperature and neutral to slightly alkaline are favourable for myrosinase activity and formation of PEITC. These findings are especially relevant since food preparations often involved heating and addition of additives that may alter the final pH. View article

Langley Calibration of Sun Photometer at Kinabalu Park (1574 M a.s.l.) Using PDM Algorithm and Statistical Filter
Nur Hasinah Najiah Binti Maizan; Jackson Chang Hian Wui; Jumat Sulaiman; Jedol Dayou. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(3), 455 - 461
Abstract This paper reports the use of improved Langley plot for LED-type sun photometer calibration at four wavelengths 440, 500, 670 and 870 nm. The Langley plot is improved by series filtration using Perez-Dumortier (PDM) algorithm and statistical filter. Data was collected at a mid-altitude site, Kinabalu Park, Kundasang (1,574 m a.s.l.) using a portable ASEQ, LR-1 spectrometer. It is shown that with Langley plot alone, it is impossible to correctly identify or remove atmospheric variations within the calibration measurements. These variations are dominated by cloud cover, and short-cirrus cloud. However, result findings show that PDM algorithm and statistical filter are useful tool to improve the result by filtering data contaminated by cloud loading and remove possible drifts caused by instabilities of the instrument. View article

Effects of Organic Additives and Plant Growth Regulators on Protocorm Development of Dendrobium lowii
Jualang Azlan Gansau; Halyena Indan; Siti Nurulwahidah Abdullah; Devina David; Hartinie Marbawi; Roslina Jawan. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(3), 462 - 468
Abstract A simple and efficient growth protocol was develop for Dendrobium lowii, an endangered and Borneo’s endemic epiphyte orchid, using four month old protocorms as explant sources produced by asymbiotic seeds germination. Protocorms of Dendrobium lowii were cultured on Knudson C (KC) media supplemented with organic additives (coconut water, tomato juice and banana pulp) or plant growth regulators (NAA, Zeatin and BAP) at different concentrations and observed for protocorm development. Among all organic additives tested, medium containing banana pulp at 25g/L induced the highest growth index value of 593.3 after 240 days of culture. This treatment also promoted 100% production of shoot and 93.3% of root formation compared to other treatments. Addition of 2g/L peptone or 15% (v/v) coconut water had significantly induced 16.7% protocorms proliferation. The supplementation of 6 µM NAA promotes similar responses for growth index of 563.3. The treatment induced up to 86.7% and 83.3% of protocorms forming shoots and roots, respectively. The study also revealed that the addition of 2 or 4 µM of NAA and 4 or 6 µM BAP is suitable for shoot induction, however with poor rooting formation. This finding is important for conservation and horticultural manipulation of the species. View article

Cubic Non-Polynomial Solution for Solving Two-Point Boundary Value Problems Using SOR Iterative Method
Hynichearry Justine; Jumat Sulaiman. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(3), 469 - 475
Abstract Two-point boundary values problems for certain order of derivatives are cases where only the initial and final values are known. These problems were normally solved using systems of ordinary or partial differential equations, and have wide applications in modelling of most physical phenomena as well as in economics. Previous investigations have shown the implementation of solutions for two-point boundary value problems by using polynomial spline approximation scheme. In this paper, non-polynomial spline approximation scheme is used where the general functions of cubic non-polynomial spline was employed to discretize the two-point boundary value problems to generate approximation equations which yield to its corresponding linear system in matrix form. Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) iterative method was then used to solve the problem together with Gauss-Seidel (GS) as reference to assess the performance result of non-polynomial spline approximation scheme in respect of its number of iteration, execution time and maximum absolute error when solving the two-point boundary value problems. It was found that SOR iterative method has performed better compared to GS for all different grid sizes as shown through the improvement of its respective number of iteration, execution time and maximum absolute error. Therefore, SOR iterative method is an efficient approach for solving the two-point boundary value problems. View article

In vitroEmbryo Germination and Callus Induction of Cynometra cauliflora, an Underutilized Medicinal Plant
Hartinie Marbawi; Siti Nadhirah Sidi Ahmad; Nur Shaheera Baharudin; Jualang Azlan Gansau. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(3), 476 - 482
Abstract Cynometra cauliflora or known as ‘Nam-Nam’ is an underutilized medicinal plant of Malaysia. In this study, embryo from matured seed of C. cauliflora was cultured on the Murashige & Skoog medium containing 0.5 μM BAP. Embryo germination achieved up to 100% and produced an average of 8.8±2.0 shoot buds per explant and 1.7±1.5 leaves after eight weeks. Stem and shoot tips explants from in vitro plantlets were further treated with 5, 10 and 15µM Thidiazuron (TDZ) for regeneration capacity. Stem explant responded 100% to callus induction after two weeks of culture on medium containing 10 μM and 15μM TDZ. Meanwhile, shoot tip explant recorded only 12.11±0.54% to callus induction after 6 weeks of culture on medium containing 5μM TDZ. Stem explant remain at calli stages until the end of study, while shoot tips undergo shoot regeneration by inducing up to 54.45±9.27% shoots production with an average of 3.00±1.00 shoots per explant. Browning phenomenon was severely observed on the culture throughout this study. Therefore, the addition of activated charcoal to the culture medium will be beneficial to eliminate phenolics accumulation. View article

Cytotoxicity and Acute Oral Toxicity of Ascomycetous Mycoparasitic Scytalidium parasiticum
Yit Kheng Goh; Nurul Fadhilah Marzuki; Choon Kiat Lim; You Keng Goh; Kah Joo Goh. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(3), 483 - 488
Abstract Scytalidium parasiticum (anamorph of Xylogone species) was described and reported as potential necrotrophic mycoparasite of Ganoderma boninense in two previous studies. This mycoparasitic S. parasiticum showed capability in reducing Ganoderma disease incidences and severity in the nursery. However, the scientific information on toxicity of S. parasiticum is limited. In the current study, S. parasiticum has been selected for cytotoxicity (MTT assay – yellow tetrazolium salt) and acute oral toxicity in rodent tests to determine the toxicity level of S. parasiticum. There were 6 different concentrations of lyophilized S. parasiticum tested – 0.063, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, in MTT assay. Results from MTT assay illustrated that S. parasiticum was considered to be weakly cytotoxicity (Inhibition concentration of 50% at the dose of 2 mg/mL) in V79-4 cells (Chinese hamster lung cells). There was no adverse toxic reaction observed in acute oral toxicity test as well (using Female Sprague-Dawley rats) at the rate of 2000 mg/kg body weight. The findings of the current study demonstrated that Scytalidium parasiticum was observed to be relatively safe with low to very low cell cytotoxicity effects and appeared to be none toxic to rats. View article

Lipid Analysis on Potential Grave Soil Products
Siti Sofo Ismail; Nur Anisah Daud. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(3), 489 - 494
Abstract Determination of time of death for a buried body is difficult. Based on a number of studies, it has been recognised that the lipid distribution extracted from soil grave may provide significant information to determine the time of death. For this study, a control laboratory burial experiment under tropical weather was conducted. The pig fatty flesh was allowed to decompose for a month and the soils were sampled at five different sampling points. The extracted lipids were analysed to determine their concentration. The modification of Bligh-Dyer extraction method was used. These soil lipids were classified into three groups, which were saturated fatty acid (SAFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) View article

Engineering Properties of Soil from Unstable Slopes in Ranau-Kundasang, Sabah, Malaysia
Hennie Fitria Wulandary binti Soehady Erfen; Asvirja Grace Gansau; William Agan Henry. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(3), 495 - 500
Abstract A total of five soil samples were collected from different sedimentary rock units namely Trusmadi Formation, Crocker Formation and Pinosouk Gravel in order to analysis the engineering properties of the soils. The soil samples were collected from unstable soil slopes in Ranau-Kundasang, Sabah. The result of analysis shows that the soil moisture content was in the range of 6.94% to 22.70%, the soil organic content range from 0.60% to 1.79%, and the soil specific gravity in the range of 2.49 to 2.65. All samples show the acidity to low alkaline in pH. The average liquid limit of soil samples were from 20.93% to 65.00%, while the plasticity indexes were in the range of 5.67% to 20.98%. The plasticity chart plot of soil found that soils from Trumadi and Crocker Formation were classified as low plasticity soil, while Pinosouk Gravel samples were classified as intermediate to high plasticity. Clay activity analysis showed the existence of illite and kaolinite in soil of Trusmadi and Crocker Formation, while kaolinite and Ca-montmorillonite appeared in soil of Pinosouk Gravel. The result shows that the optimum moisture contents range from 11.50% to 21.13%, while the maximum dry density was within a range from 1.52 Mg/m3 to 1.90 Mg/m3. The unconfined compression strength indicated that all samples are classified as soft soil where soil samples of Pinosouk Gravel showed the lowest strength. The permeability of all soil samples is best classified as very low permeability to impermeable. The porosity analysis showed that Trusmadi and Crocker Formation are sandy-dominated soil with 61.73% to 69.08%, while Gravel Pinosouk samples are poorly-sorted soil with 42.90% to 61.50%. View article

Interpreting Anthropogenic Signals From a Clandestine Grave Via Soil Lipid Biomolecular Analysis
Siti Sofo Ismail; Ian D. Bull; Richard P. Evershed. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(3), 501 - 506
Abstract The identification of a buried cadaver becomes complicated for remains which badly decomposed as the DNA analysis is not possible. As the potential of cadaveric derived lipids have been recognised to be used as ‘biomarkers’ to detect a clandestine grave and/or the provenance of a cadaver, subsequently to determine its post-mortem interval (PMI), soils from eleven identified crime scenes were collected. The biomolecular analysis of the soil lipid extracts by GC and GC/MS remarkably shows the shifting in the sources of lipids which can be associated with post-dispositional interval (PDI) and/or PMI. The soils with low PMI contain lipids components that are most likely derived from decomposing fatty flesh, exhibiting a higher concentrations of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids, unsaturated analogues palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids, and cholest-5-en-3β-ol (cholesterol). Whilst, the cases with longer PDI demonstrate a large shifts towards higher fatty acid homologues, with the presence of sitosterol, 5α-stigmastanol and β-amyrin indicating the predominance inputs of plant derived organic material. As conclusion, the lipid distributions would provide useful information for forensic investigations. View article

Invited Paper

Earthquake Prediction
Kuei-hsiang Cheng. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(3), 507 - 516
Abstract This paper aims at the types, methods, and four basic factors of earthquake prediction: model and mechanism, single or multiple observation method, the accuracy of predicting, and testing space and time. They are used to examine and clarify the content and condition of earthquake prediction. Earthquake prediction first stresses on setting up physical model. To conform with tectonic structure and the earth surface fault system distribution, multiple observation methods are used to examine different seismogenic processes of temporal unusual precursors. Scientists have the opportunity to measure the unusual precursor data of the physical model, and further reach the prediction goal of earthquakes. This paper discusses the six great potential kinds of earthquake prediction methods, where half of the methods belong to the electromagnetic precursor anomalies. By establishing the mechanism of the LAI coupling, earthquake prediction is expected to have further break-through in the near future. View article

Early Detection and Management of Ganoderma Basal Stem Rot Disease: A Special Report from Sabah
Khim-Phin Chong; Arnnyitte Alexander; Syahriel Abdullah. 2016. Transactions on Science and Technology, 3(3), 517 - 523
Abstract Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma spp. is the most devastating disease of oil palm in Southeast Asia. This paper discusses sustainable approaches in managing BSR disease particularly on early detection and control of Ganoderma with some examples from oil palm estates in Sabah. New detection methods such as ergosterol analysis and Ganoderma signature via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) are emphasized. Latest disease control methods with great potentials such as combination of biological control agents (BCAs), enhancing defense mechanism of oil palm through enviro-friendly approach, potential biomarkers for selection of resistant breeding materials and utilization of eco-friendly fungicide were also discussed. View article

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