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Volume 9, Issue No 2-2, August 2022

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Issues in Volume 9
I No 1 II No 2 II No 2-2 (this issue) II No 3 II No 4 I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

Original Articles

Cost and Time Overruns in Western Australian Government Projects: Procurement Decision-Making Antecedents
Tom Lees; Dane Segar; Andrew Whyte; Stephen Urquhart. 2022. Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(2-2), 86 - 96.
Abstract Cost and time overruns in public-sector construction projects are a noteworthy issue in Western Australia, often stemming from pre-contract client decisions’ antecedents compounded by a lack of guidance for (lay) stakeholders. This research develops models to assist stakeholders towards identifying/selecting a procurement method that allocates risk appropriately, alongside objective guidance for suitable prequalification criteria. A qualitative research methodology using two developed sets of semi-structured interviews targeted a sample of 21 respected WA industry-practitioners. Response transcripts revealed common themes; findings then informed models for selecting a procurement method that most appropriately allocates risks, leading to the development of additional models to structure prequalification processes in construct-only procurement, by aligning prequalification criteria with respective project circumstances. The developed guidance flowchart models have been validated and enhanced through follow-up validatory industrial appraisal. This research provides a contribution to the existing body of knowledge related to procurement methods, contractor selection, and optimisation of pre-contract decisions for use by inexperienced stakeholders, towards the mitigation of cost/time overruns in public sector jobs.
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Comparative Study of Condition Survey Investigation on Building Affected by Bridge Piling Installation
Asmawan Mohd Sarman; Nazaruddin Abdul Taha; Nur Farah Adlin Misri; Elis Mardzianah Mazlan; Muhammad Muizzuddin Mukhtar. 2022. Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(2-2), 97 - 102.
Abstract The building rating system enables the assessor to determine the performance of the building based on approved standards. This paper aims to evaluate the effect of the bridge piling installation on the surrounding building, assess the building condition by using approved standards and propose appropriate rehabilitation to the defects. In this study, the condition assessment of a residential building was performed using three (3) standards; CSP 1 Matrix, BARIS and QLASSIC 2006. There is a similarity between the concept of the CSP 1 Matrix and BARIS. However, BARIS has a more detailed score evaluation than CSP 1 Matrix. QLASSIC 2006 covers more specific components that can be evaluated according to Structural, Architectural, Mechanical and Electrical (M&E) and External Works. Based on the CSP 1 Matrix and BARIS analysis, the building is in Fair condition and requires attention for repair works. The data obtained from QLASSIC analysis is 17.44%. This percentage indicates that most of the elements do not comply with the standards from CIBD, and the performance of the building is poor. The causes of the defects are determined, and their respective rehabilitation is discussed. The effects of the Tebobon 3 Bridge construction on the surrounding building are analysed, and the finding shows that the bridge has no significant impact. The data assessed is before visual inspection basis. Hence, the scope of the study shall be expanded by conducting a Destructive Test (DT) and Non-Destructive Test (NDT) on the defects encountered by the building to determine the significance and their level of severity as well as verify the results from visual inspections. This study can also be widened to assess different categories of buildings by using a similar building rating system. So, using these methods, the quality and performance of other types of building categories can be assessed.
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Potential Opportunities and Strategy of Building Information Modelling (BIM) In Malaysian Infrastructure Construction
Asmawan Mohd Sarman; Lim Chung Han; Allan Lumberio Lim; Elis Mardzianah Mazlan; Muhammad Muizzuddin Mukhtar. 2022. Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(2-2), 103 - 110.
Abstract This study mainly identifies the potential, opportunities and strategy of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in Malaysian infrastructure construction. The main objective of this study is to identify the barriers and strategies to overcome the implementation of BIM in the Malaysian construction industry, Sabah to be specific. The industry personnel have conducted an online survey through Google Forms. SPSS identified barriers, and correlation analysis was carried out. Besides, a bridge representing the infrastructure component is modelled to determine the interoperability of the available software in the market. Throughout the survey, it is evident that several issues that stall the implementation of BIM in the Malaysian construction industry are required to be addressed. While for the modelling part, software interoperability from different developers arises during the modelling process, which could also be a barrier in this topic.
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The Effect of Water Absorption on the Compressive Strength of Conventional Cement-sand Brick
Thomas Tan; Habib Musa Mohamad; Hidayati Asrah. 2022. Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(2-2), 111 - 124.
Abstract This research was conducted on the conventional cement-sand bricks from the market. Heavy rainfall during rainy seasons dampens building brick walls resulting having bubbling paint, crumbling plaster, powdery deposits and crack fissures on wall surfaces. The water absorption was conducted for 24 hours, 7, 14 and 28 days shows water was absorbed by conventional cement-sand bricks are 5.94%, 6.09%, 6.12% and 6.23%, results revealed conventional cement-sand bricks are porous. The compressive strength was conducted on the dry and wet conditions of conventional cement-sand bricks for 24 hours, 7, 14 and 28 days showed the compressive strength of dry conditions are 11.28 N/mm2, 10.28 N/mm2, 10.27 N/mm2 and 10.27 N/mm2 and wet conditions are 11.02 N/mm2, 7.81 N/mm2, 7.80 N/mm2 and 7.80 N/mm2. As stated by the BS 5628 1:2005, 11.28 N/mm2 classified as M12(i), designation 50, with the strength of 11.6 N/mm2 for 24 hours and 10.28 N/mm2 classified as M12 (i), designation 40, with the strength of 10.0 N/mm2 for 7, 14 and 28 days.
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Investigation on the Public Bus Issues in Kota Kinabalu City
Zulkitti Madisibi; Lillian Gungat; Mohd Azizul Ladin; Nadzirah Jausus. 2022. Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(2-2), 125 - 132.
Abstract The public bus services play an important role in city. However, the number of public transport users is declining day by day and the public chooses to own and use private vehicles due to its convenience. Consequently, number of vehicles on the road increases which lead to severe road congestion. Hence, this study identifies the issue of public transportation in Kota Kinabalu that deters from the establishment of integrated public transportation system. Data were collected through site observation and survey questionnaire at selected study area and responses from bus users was analyzed using SPSS software. The results show that the public are dissatisfied with the overall quality of public bus services in Kota Kinabalu especially in terms of public bus transfer/interchanges, bus trip schedule, waiting time, walking distance to bus stop, route planning, comfort, the punctuality of bus arrival as well as the overall quality of bus stops. It is found that current public bus service is uncomfortable for older bus user. Apart from that, the quality of public bus differs across line of services where better quality service experienced in areas closer to CBD. In order to make transition into an integrated public bus system, improvement of the overall public bus quality need to takes all these factors into account.
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Community perceptions on the adoption of stormwater management practices in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah: A pilot study
Awang Nasrizal Awang Ali; Grace Agnes Justin; Nazaruddin Abdul Taha; Mohamad Shakri Mohmad Shariff; Nurmin Bolong. 2022. Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(2-2), 133 - 141.
Abstract The current practices have included the BMPs to improve urban stormwater quality while reducing critical flood events and stream erosion. However, uncontrolled development in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, compromises the way water flows. Albeit with MSMA, the community perspectives are also important and should be studied. This work determines the community's perception of the stormwater management practice through a survey. Data collected from 56 respondents (with a varied range of working experiences in the private sector (64%) and government sector (36%)) were descriptively analyzed. With a mean of 2.39, most respondents have knowledge and understanding of stormwater management, despite various working experiences. The findings show that respondents agree that infrastructure developments (<90%) are vital when dealing with stormwater and that proper waste management (79%) should also be emphasized. Then the funding (27%) and enforcement (24%) were highlighted as the main barriers to proper stormwater management implementation. Lastly, with a mean of 3.3, most respondents agreed (39%) and strongly agreed (46%) that there is a need to improve the existing stormwater management practices. Considering stormwater as a valuable green alternate resource, we suggest a sustainable approach to monitoring stormwater quality and flooding events, such as green filtration and IoT integration.
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Impact of Pandemic on Public Transportation Service in Kota Kinabalu
Lillian Gungat; Dayang Russalnie Deh;Mohd. Azizul Ladin; Jodin Makinda; Elsa Eka Putri. 2022. Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(2-2), 142 - 151.
Abstract Implementation of the Movement Control Order during pandemic with new regulations is expected to have consequential destruction to all service sectors and increase the disruption risk factor for future public transportation planning. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the people's travel behaviors and perceptions related to pandemic and public transportation service as part of the impact assessment for sustainability of public transportation operation. This study was conducted in the city of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah where questionnaire surveys were distributed to respondents and results were analyzed using statistical analysis methods. The McNemar Bowker and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank tests proved that there are significant impacts of COVID-19 pandemic to the mobility characteristics and travel mode preference on using public transport for primary outdoor trips. The number of trips completed were significantly reduced, while the choices of transport mode were also influenced by the spread of COVID-19 whereby respondents choosing to avoid public transportation. The findings also showed differences in travel behaviors concerning demographic factors. Based on the respondent perception on pandemic COVID-19, 71% agree that probability of being infected is higher when using public transport. Hence, public transport sector needs to strictly follow the standard operating procedure during pandemic to attract more public transport usage for economic sustainability.
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Review Articles

An Evaluation of Sustainable Campus Guidelines in Energy Management Context
Siti Kartini Ali Ashgar; Lilian Gungat; Asmawan Mohd Sarman; Nurmin Bolong. 2022. Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(2-2), 152 - 163.
Abstract Campus Sustainability can be defined as the integration of sustainable environmental practices into higher education institutional practices. The involvement of the university community, including administration, academic departments (faculty and students), researchers, and the local community, is required for an effective transition to a sustainable campus. After UI GreenMetric was published in 2010 and revised in 2015, most institutions released sustainable campus guidance. However, implementation toward sustainable campus status is still low because some factors such as lack of relevant managerial experience in implementing sustainable campus initiatives and lack of funding were obstacles to achieving sustainable campus development. Furthermore, energy has a significant effect on sustainability since it impacts both the social economy and the environment. Thus, campus sustainability requires an emphasis on energy sustainability due to campus operations and activities that have significant energy consumption depending on the size of the campus, including its buildings and infrastructures. This paper identifies critical energy management needs by extracting energy elements from the green building's framework and highlighting sustainable campuses toward proposing the energy sustainability maturity framework for Malaysian universities.
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