Volume 9, Issue No 2, June 2022

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Issues in Volume 9
I No 1 II No 2 (this issue) II No 2-2 II No 3 II No 4 I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

Original Articles

Properties of Lightweight Foamcrete Strengthened With Cellulose Fibre Isolated From Oil Palm Frond
Md Azree Othuman Mydin. 2022. Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(2), 26 - 34.
Abstract This study concentrates on a laboratory assessment to evaluate the efficiency of adding cellulose fibre isolated from an oil palm bark in lightweight foamcrete (LF) to improve the strength properties. LF samples were strengthened with 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.4% volume fractions of cellulose frond fibre (CFF). There were three low densities of LF were considered, namely 500 kg/m3, 750 kg/m3, and 1000 kg/m3. The parameters investigated were compressive, splitting tensile and bending strengths. The results indicated that the presence of 0.3% CFF in LF helped to obtain the highest results for bending, compressive and splitting tensile strengths. CFF acts as a space filler and bridges the gaps and microcracks in LF, resulting in high strength. In addition, CFF helped to inhibit the micro-cracks propagation in the plastic state of LF. This study provided vital experimental data to assist future researchers in the field of LF in utilizing natural fibers to enhance the properties of LF.
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DDT-Pyrethroid Resistance Screening in Association with the kdr Allele F1534C in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Azlinda Abu Bakar; Amani Ahmad Mokhtar; Tuan Nur Akmalina Mat Jusoh; Rafidah Hanim Shueb. 2022. Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(2), 35 - 42.
Abstract The emergence of insecticide resistance in Aedes against pyrethroid group has become a threat to the vector control program. This study investigates the resistance status and the presence of F1534C kdr mutations in Aedes albopictus populations of Kota Bharu and Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. The F1 adults of Ae. albopictus were assayed using World Health Organization (WHO) susceptibility test with 4% dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), 0.05% lambda-cyhalothrin, and 0.75% permethrin. For susceptibility analysis, the mortality percentage, 50% cumulative knockdown time (KT50), and resistance ratio (RR) values were calculated. All the mosquito survivors were collected and subjected to the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) analysis on the presence of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation F1534C. Results show that Ae. albopictus from Kota Bharu was possible resistance to DDT and pyrethroids, while Ae. albopictus in Kubang Kerian showed mixed resistant populations which are possible resistance and susceptibility to DDT and pyrethroids, respectively. The kdr alleles F/C1534 were detected in both Ae. albopictus populations with higher heterozygote resistant alleles (F/C) in Kota Bharu.
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Growth, Yield and Economic Potential of Cavendish Banana Planted in Oil Palm Gaps
Januarius Gobilik; Mattunjan Md. Epin; Hamdy Roslie; David Benjamen Lintua; Kenneth Rodrigues; Suzan Benedick; Abdul Hamid Ahmad. 2022. Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(2), 43 - 52.
Abstract The mortality of a few trees leads to the emergence of palm gaps or unproductive areas in oil palm plantations. These areas offer the potential for integrating a secondary crop, such as, the Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata Colla). This banana is a well-established clonally propagated variety which is well known to local planters, but to date, little information is reported about its agronomy, yield, management, and economic potential as an intercrop in oil palm plantations. In the present study, Cavendish suckers were planted in palm gaps and the respective information was assessed. The suckers were collected from the mother plants in Kota Belud, Sabah. The suckers were planted in polybags for conditioning, and after a month, transplanted at 1.8 m x 1.8 m distance in palm gaps of the oil palm area in UMS Campus, Sandakan. The planting density was 10 saplings/(2.3 m x 6.0 m) gap. Weeds were machine-cut in the first 11 months, but after that, only when necessary. The weeds were also controlled with application of Glyphosate once/year. Fertilizer was applied once/year as 0.5 kg of NPK15:15:06, NPK15:15:15, and NPK12:12:17, respectively. Compost was added once/year as 1.5 kg of chicken dung and goat manure, respectively. Trees yielded fruits within seven to eight months of transplantation. The banana trees were 2.2±0.2 m tall at fruiting. The yield was 14.6±0.2 kg banana-hand/bunch. The banana hands were 2.0±0.1 kg/hand. There were seven banana hands per bunch, with a weight that ranged from 3.29±0.22 kg (top), 1.92±0.05 kg (middle) to 1.37±0.19 kg (bottom/last) per hand. The banana hands were sold at RM4.0/kg. The profit was RM56.0/bunch, or RM4.06/m2/banana. The net profit was RM40.39/banana, or RM29.26/m2, not accounting fruit processing and marketing costs, which was not so applicable in this study. In addition, the banana foliage shaded and thereby suppressed the growth of weeds, reducing the manpower and associated cost of weeding in the oil palm area.
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Autonomous Simplified Long-Range Web-Based System for Tracking of Movement Using FindXTech
Roderick R. Puvok; Jedol Dayou. 2022. Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(2), 53 - 65.
Abstract Generally, long-range movement tracking system requires either complex integration of multiple short-range communication networks such as Zig Bee, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Wi-MAX and RFIDs, or through commercial satellite communication system such as Global System for Mobile Communications and General Packet Radio Service. It could be for many purposes such as smart city management, tracking asset, smart agriculture management or reducing traffic accidents. Using multiple short-range communication networks require wide range of electronics components and communication protocol to enabling the function. On the other hand, using Global System for Mobile or General Packet Radio Service could incur additional cost for subscription and depending on the coverage area. This paper discusses a simplified long-range tracking system with unlimited access over the internet. A prototype called FindXTech was built in the paper that uses point-to-point transceivers using Long Range communication device or LoRa in short, without any intermediate third-party communication medium. For location identification, a global positioning satellite module was coupled with a primary LoRa module and integrated using Arduino Nano microcontroller that also channeled the required power to LoRa and global positioning satellite modules, as well as to handle the sending global positioning satellite data via LoRa at the transmitter’s end. At the receiver’s end, the GPS data received by the secondary LoRA which is also powered by using Arduino Nano microcontroller where at the same time the microcontroller red and process the data. The receiver’s Arduino Nano microcontroller is connected to a local server personal computer with local area network connection where the microcontroller fed related information such as latitude and longitude (Lat-Long) data and sending time of the transmitter. The Lat-Long data are integrated into a map to display the transmitter’s location. A series of test were conducted to show the workability of the system for tracking a moving car on a road at different conditions where the transmitter is fitted. It was found that FindXTech system is capable of displaying the moving car location on a straight road at different speed. The system also capable of smoothly showing a U-turn movement on a U-turn road, movement in a shopping lots area, residential area, hilly and winding road as well as under flyover road and dense housing area within 5 km radius.
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Review Articles

Mitigating the Fuel Consumption of Passenger Cars in Malaysia: A Mini-Review
Nai Hao Houng; Sebastian Dayou; Mohammad Shahril Osman. 2022. Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(2), 66 - 76.
Abstract The upsurge in energy consumption by the transportation sector have prompted numerous efforts from the global community to combat its adverse effects on the environment. Vehicular fuel consumption studies have been carried out worldwide in an effort to reduce and regulate fuel consumption especially for passenger cars. The mitigation strategies for energy consumption and emissions from the transportation sector in Malaysia have been reviewed in the literature. However, specific reviews related to the methods used to estimate fuel consumption of passenger cars remains unavailable. In this review, the recent activities related to the mitigation of fuel consumption of passenger cars in the country are presented. The approaches for estimating the consumption of fuel are also reviewed. It is found that a more accurate values of fuel consumption are needed in the country and numerical analysis is an effective method for this purpose. This would be key toward the development and establishing fuel economy policy in the country.
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Agrotourism in Malaysia: A Review on Concept, Development, Challenges and Benefits
Orryel Jaunis; Andy Russel Mojiol; Julius Kodoh. 2022. Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(2), 77 - 85.
Abstract Malaysia has a variety of products with the potential to be developed as unique tourist attractions. In the last decade, agrotourism or agritourism, has gained more attention, especially among the urban populations following the government’s initiative to use this platform for income diversification among the rural community. In Malaysia, agrotourism revolves around tourism activities offered by local farm operations in four agricultural branches, which are agriculture, fisheries, livestock, and agro-based industry, to maximize the farmers' income. The primary purpose of this review is to explore the development of agrotourism from the existing literature in the past three decades since its implementation in Malaysia. The concept and challenges of developing agrotourism were discussed in this paper. Besides that, this study also examines the contribution of the agrotourism sector to the local community in Malaysia in economic and social aspects. The literature review approach has been adopted to fulfill the objective of this review. A total of 17 papers were selected and studied for review in the current research. The finding shows that the development and achievement of agrotourism in Malaysia are slow and far behind our neighboring countries. The common challenges faced in establishing farm-based tourism include limitations among farmers and a lack of awareness of this niche besides the underdeveloped infrastructure and facilities in rural areas. Nevertheless, this review found that agrotourism has benefited the local community in economic and social aspects such as income diversification, job creation, and business opportunity. Therefore, agrotourism in Malaysia has a great potential to be one of the poverty alleviation initiatives when the related stakeholders execute proper approaches and policies. This study will help to understand the current scenario of agrotourism and thus hoped to be a basic guideline in farm-based tourism development planning in the future.
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