Volume 4, Issue No 3-2, September 2017

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Issues in Volume 4
I No 1 II No 2 II No 3 II No 3-2 (this issue) II No 3-3 II No 4 I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

Full Articles

Do We Need A New Camera Vision System In Future? One of Two Realities; One of The Two Must Be True
Shahrudin Zakaria; Syed Najib Syed Salim; Maslan Zainon; Norazlina Abd Razak. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-2), 263 - 272
Abstract Do we need a new camera vision system? To answer this, we need to choose between the realities. At least one of these interpretations must be true (1 or 2). The authors try to demonstrate the only possible questionable reality is only one of the two realities. Whilst the authors attempt to propose answers to the question, both pathways are possible. Interpretation 1 indicates that the world has the same colour as in our minds while Interpretation 2 justifies that colour is relative and cannot be determined. It also implies new knowledge, which is difficult to be accepted. Readers have the choices to choose. Nevertheless, at the end of the day, readers will have to choose one of the options available (no choice). Interpretation 1 or 2; the reality is then derived from the chosen one. View article

Hypothesis of Human-Light Dependency, Conceivably Could Ascertain Einstein’s Prediction
Shahrudin Zakaria; Syed Najib Syed Salim; Maslan Zainon; Norazlina Abd Razak; Shamsul Anuar Shamsudin. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-2), 273 - 285
Abstract All animals, including humans see the world in varying electromagnetic energy ranges. There is a possibility of doubting the principles of black and white (dark and bright). For the average readers, authors will start with a very basic argument in section two. The third section is the detail clarification of the second section, a logical conclusion of the third section (partial dark world) is unavoidable. While the core of this paper is in Section 4, it is about the hypothesis of light and all the supporting argument. If the hypothesis in Section 4.1 could be experimentally verified, it is anticipated that the light is merely Electromagnet (EM) energy as proposed has its basis, then its illumination property is residing in human mind could be true. Nevertheless, regardless Section 4.1, arguments support in Section 4.2 & 4.3 showed a strong inclination that the claim is most probably correct. This means biological creatures (human) make use the energy of EM (400-700nm) to create the meaning of brightness of which we are unaware. Whilst in the outside world is different as predicted by Einstein. View article

Effect of Thermal Treatment on Mechanical Properties Rice Husk Ash Filled Tapioca Starch Composite
Dk Norsyafina Binti Pg Adnan; Sazmal Effendi Arshad. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-2), 286 - 291
Abstract This research presents a biopolymer from tapioca starch (TPS) as the base and rice husk ash (RHA) as the filler material. TPS molding was prepared by gelatinization and casting technique. Rice husk ash was produced from leaching treatment with calcinations at 700oC for 24 hour. The effect of thermal treatment with varying content of rice husk ash (0, 1, 2, and 3 %) on mechanical properties of tapioca starch composite was evaluated in order to get the characterization of the composite. Result shows a decrease in mechanical properties with the increase of rice husk ash content. However, after thermal treatment at temperature 80oC for 24 hrs the tensile strength has an increase of 13%, 125%, 340% and 311%, respectively. View article

Data With Detail Description

Comparison of Antioxidant Properties in Juiced and Brewed Carica Papaya Leaves Extracts
Monjia Belleza Cosmas Mojulat; Noumie Surugau. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-2), 292 - 297
Abstract Carica papaya is widely cultivated not only for its delicious fruit, but also for its medicinal properties. In Malaysia, papaya leaf is perceived to cure many ailments. Recently, papaya leaves extract was reported to possess anti-dengue properties. Some researchers suggested that the antioxidants in papaya leaf contributing to its anti-dengue effects. This study compared two common household methods to prepare papaya leaves extracts as medicinal supplement, namely juicing and brewing, in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity based on ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging assays. The results obtained are as follows: TPC (in mg GAE/g) were 6.05 ± 0.05 and 4.17 ± 0.05; and TFC (in mg QUE/g) 1.38 ± 0.02 and 0.30 ± 0.07 for brewing and juicing, respectively. Meanwhile, for the antioxidant activities: 6.29 ± 0.25 mg TE/g on FRAP and 52% scavenging activity with IC50 of 926.31 ± 2.21 mg TE/g on DPPH for brewing; and 8.59 ± 0.22 mg TE/g on FRAP and 60% scavenging activity with IC50 of 758.02 ± 9.32 mg TE/g for juicing. Pearson correlation analysis showed a strong, positive correlation between TPC and TFC and their antioxidant activities, with r2 > 0.900 for all of the analyses. Overall, papaya leaves extract prepared by brewing contained higher (p < 0.05) TPC, TFC and activities compared to juicing. The results suggest that antioxidant contents in papaya leaves extracts are readily influenced by the preparation methods used. View article

Growth and Biomass Production of Native Microalgae Chlorella sp., Chlamydomonas sp., and Scenedesmus sp. Cultivated in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) at Different Cultivation Conditions
Harizah Bajunaid Hariz; Mohd Sobri Takriff. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-2), 298 - 311
Abstract The main objective of this research was to study native microalgae Chlorella sp., Clamydomonas sp. and Scenedesmus sp. growth and biomass productivity at different source of nutrient, inoculum concentration and aeration factor. Agricultural wastewater, palm oil mill effluent (POME) was used as a nutrient source which was compared with Bold’s Basal Medium (BBM) by culturing the microalgae at different inoculum concentration in 1-Litre transparent vessel with 700ml of working volume. Fixed aeration rate, 1L/min was set for all with 14000 lux of light intensity at 25±2°C cultivation temperature. The results were also compared with the non-aerated cultures which only mixing was being provided for the microalgae growth. Based on the growth rate, 30% of inoculum shows the highest growth rate for all these three microalgae species Chlorella sp. (µmax =0.2712), Chamydomonas sp. (µmax =0.2547) and Scenedesmus sp. (µmax =0.1867) cultured in POME with air being supplied as the aeration factor. However, in BBM 30% of inoculum for Chlamydomonas sp. (µmax =0.5082) and Scenedesmus sp. (µmax =0.3402) manifest highest growth rate while Chlorella sp. does not exhibit significant effect at different inoculum concentration. The non-aerated culture condition shows 20% of inoculum for Chlamydomonas sp. (µmax =0.125) and Chlorella sp. (µmax =0.2052) cultures give the highest growth rate with POME. Similar results were obtained for Chlamydomonas sp. (µmax =0.1673) and Chlorella sp. (µmax =0.1855) cultured in BBM at non-aerated condition. Scenedesmus sp. shows the highest growth rate with 10% of inoculum at the non-aerated condition for both POME (µmax =0.1900) and BBM (µmax =0.1975). From the growth curves, the adaptation (lag phase) and exponential period of microalgae species were determined. Based on the results, all 3-species cultured in POME required 6 days for the lag phase and 14 days for the exponential phase which is doubled the period taken for BBM as the nutrient medium. View article

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