Volume 4, Issue No 3-3, Borneo Biotech 2016

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Issues in Volume 4
I No 1 II No 2 II No 3 II No 3-2 II No 3-3 (this issue) II No 4 I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

Full Articles

Sequencing of Coral Genomes Obtained from the Environment
Dexter Jiunn Herng Lee; Christopher Lok Yung Voo. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 312 - 317
Abstract Cultured Acropora gemmifera and A. tenuis obtained from the environment were sequenced and the sequenced obtained were binned. The corals were obtained from a coral farm located in the waters near the shores of Semporna, Sabah. The absence of symbionts commonly associated with corals, as well as the presence of reads with no hits, suggest that a more comprehensive and exhaustive database should be used instead of the current database. The presence of contaminants and the variability of the symbionts may vary depending on the location and environment from which the corals were obtained. View article

Microbial 16S rDNA Sequencing of Cultivable Bacteria Associated With Toxic Dinoflagellate, Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum
Salley Venda Law; Kenneth Francis Rodrigues; Ann Anton; Grace Joy Wei Lie Chin. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 318 - 323
Abstract Bacteria associated with toxic dinoflagellate, Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum play an important role in paralytic shellfish toxin production during harmful algal bloom occurrences, which frequently spotted in the coastal waters of Sabah. The outbreak has caused a remarkable impact on economic losses to Sabah aquaculture industries, even worse, human illness and fatalities. The expression of PST during a toxic bloom remains elusive, furthermore studies on the bacterial diversity associated with Sabah P. bahamense are limited. Thus the study aimed to examine the cultivable bacteria diversity associated with P. bahamense through 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A total of 74 isolates were successfully obtained, which were predominated by the phyla proteobacteria. 41 of the isolates were gamma-proteobacteria; Alteromonas sp. (37), Marinobacter sp. (3), Methylophaga sp. (1), and 34 of the isolates were alpha-proteobacteria; Ruegeria sp. (29), Lutimaribacter sp. (5). The major bacteria strains identified were Alteromonas sp. and Ruegeria sp. which were previously reported as a possible PST-producing bacterium. The information from this study will provide important insights into the understanding the relationship between dinoflagellate-bacteria association as well as the role of these bacteria in toxin production. View article

Comparative Modeling of TCP1 Ring Complex (TRiCF) From a Psychrophilic Yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica
Nur Athirah Yusof; Farah Diba Abu Bakar; Nor Muhammad Mahadi; Abdul Munir Abdul Murad. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 324 - 329
Abstract The TRiC chaperonin belongs to the group II chaperonin that is ubiquitously expressed in the cytosol of archae and eukaryotes. Well known as the complex machinery of protein folding and biogenesis of many cytoskeletal proteins, including tubulin and actin, this chaperonin is indispensable for cell survival as an essential subset of cytosolic proteins requires TRiC for proper folding. Life in extremely cold environment faces energetic challenges to protein folding where psychrophiles have evolved some important cellular adaptations. This indicates that psychrophilic TRiC has undergone positive selection, structural evolution and mechanistic features that distinguish it from other chaperones. The knowledge of this unique complex is in its infancy, therefore we illustrate a systematic tertiary model of the first eukaryotic psychrophilic chaperonin that open the platform to understand the secrets of its folding chamber. The unique ability displayed by the psychrophilic TRiC offers a great opportunity to study the relationship between protein function and structure in terms of stability, flexibility and dynamic conformation. View article

Chemical Characterization and Biological Activities of Methanol Extract From Castanopsis megacarpa Seeds of Sarawak
Nadia Binti Mat; Zaini Bin Assim; Fasihuddin Badrudin Ahmad. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 330 - 335
Abstract Castanopsis genus belongs to Fagaceae family consists of 120 species distributed throughout temperate and tropical forest of Asia. Castanopsis megacarpa can be found along river and hillside are widely distributed in Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo Island. C. megacarpa seeds were initially defatted using petroleum ether and then extracted using methanol. Non-polar and polar fractions of methanol extract were analysed on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Non-polar combined fractions (CFa to CFc) contained hydrocarbons and several siloxanes. GC-MS analysis on derivatised polar combined fractions (CFd to CFg) revealed several peaks which correspond to carbohydrates, alcohols and fatty acids. Methanol extract and CFg sample showed antioxidant activities are high with low EC50 values of 205.10 and 158.97 mg/L, respectively. Brine shrimp lethality test showed methanol extract and polar combined fractions (CFd-CFg) are toxic with LC50 < 100 mg/L. View article

Antioxidants, Polyphenols and Marker Phytochemicals Content Fom Dferent Parts of Clinacanthus nutans (C.nutans)
Norliza Abdul Latiff; Chua Lee Suan; Siti Nor Azlina Abd. Rashid; Noor Azwani Zainool. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 336 - 341
Abstract Clinacanthus nutans (C.nutans) or Belalai Gajah has become popular medicinal herb for Malaysian community due to worthy biological property. It has been used in widespread of food products such as tea and supplements. The present study was focussed the determination of phytochemical components of C.nutans of the three different plant parts consists of leaves, stem and plant mixture. The experiments deal with the assessment of antioxidant property, total phenolic content and marker phytochemicals (orientin and vitexin). Free radical scavenging activity based on DPPH and ABTS assays were carried out for the antioxidant property. Meanwhile, the phenol content and identification of marker phytochemical were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method and HPLC analysis respectively. Leaves samples exhibits stronger scavenger ability (DPPH, 953.22± 3.49a µg/ml and ABTS,1693.33±0.23a µg/ml) compared to other samples. The total phenols content and both marker phytochemical of orientin and vitexin were found higher in leaves among the samples. Stem indicated the least results among the parameters tested. The total phenolic content in the leaves was 125.83 ± 0(mg GAE/g) while orientin represented 0.1235, w/w% and vitexin represented 0.1421 w/w%, respectively. The present results indicated leaves from C.nutans have higher chemical property and could be preferable part to be used for further phytochemicals research. View article

Monitoring and Optimizing the Lipopolysaccharides-plasmid DNA Interaction by FRET-FLIM
Nur Syahadatain Abdul Razak; Clarence M. Ongkudon; Sudhaharan Thankiah. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 342 - 347
Abstract In this work, in vitro FLIM-FRET experiments were performed to measure the interaction of divalent metal cations such as Zn2+ and Mg2+ with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and plasmid DNA (pDNA). For Zn2+ induced interaction with LPS-DNA, the fluorescence lifetime of donor (Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate LPS) was 3.97 ns. Once acceptor (Alexa Fluor 594-labeled pDNA) was added, a sharp decrease in lifetime of 3.16 ns was observed. FRET efficiency for the interaction was calculated based on the change in fluorescence lifetime. The 20 % FRET efficiency calculated suggesting that significant interaction occurred. While for the interaction with Mg2+, donor lifetime alone was 3.72 ns. After the addition of acceptor, a slight decrease in lifetime was detected, 3.66 ns, corresponding to a low FRET efficiency of 1.6 % was recorded reflecting a very weak interaction. Data from FLIM images also showed that Zn2+ induced higher degree of aggregation compared to Mg2+. As part of the ongoing research project, the selectivity of Zn2+ over pDNA/ LPS and its ability to enhance aggregation are yet to be investigated. View article

Nano-Biointerface of Titania Nanotube Arrays Surface Influence Epithelial HT29 Cells Response
Rabiatul Basria S. M. N. Mydin; Mustafa Fadzil Farid Wajidi; Roshasnorlyza Hazan; Srimala Sreekantan. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 348 - 353
Abstract The unique structure of Titania Nanotube Arrays (TNA) provides larger surface area and energy to improve cellular interactions for nano-biomaterial implants and nanomedicine applications. TNA topography plays a critical role in cellular stability and cell survival. This nanostructure surface has been shown to modulate diverse cellular responses of cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. The present study has found evidence which suggests that TNA nanoarchitecture structures may be beneficial for epithelial cells as a supply or storage route for nutrients and also for mediator growth signals. Thus, this nano-surface might act as a good modulator and communicator in cellular interaction because it could recruit and provide sufficient essential biological element for cell growth and its survival. View article

Identification of Bioactive Compounds, Quantitative Measurement of Phenolics and Flavonoids Content, and Radical Scavenging Activity of Lygodiumcir cinnatum
Riana Binti Awang Saman; Ruzaidi Azli Mohd. Mokhtar; Mohammad Iqbal. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 354 - 359
Abstract Studies have proven that oxidative stress plays a major contribution towards many diseases. The ability of antioxidants status to recover from certain diseases is shown to be important for the improvement of human’s health. Lygodium circinnatum (Lygodiaceae) is used by local Sabahan in treating various diseases. In this study, the presence of bioactive compounds in the aqueous extract of L. circinnatum were chemically tested and has resulted in the detection of these compounds; alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenolics compound and glycosides. Total content of phenolics and flavonoids were determined by using quantitative measure. In-vitro antioxidant activity was investigated by the method for total antioxidant capacity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The content of phenolics was 31.84 + 0.24 mg/ml gallic acid equivalent and flavonoids were 63.5 + 1.67 mg/ml catechin equivalent. The IC50 value of L. circinnatum in DPPH assay was 143.76 µg/ml whereas IC50 of standard ascorbic acid was 39.43 µg/ml. The results obtained have shown such important phytochemical properties present in L. circinnatum and is expected to be beneficial in treating diseases where oxidative stress is implicated. View article

Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Ficus lepicarpa Leaves from Sabah, Malaysia
Senty Vun-Sang; Teoh Peik-Lin; Kenneth Francis Rodriques; Mohammad Iqbal. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 360 - 365
Abstract Ficus lepicarpa belongs to family Moraceae and commonly known as ‘Saraca fig’. It has been used by local people as vegetable dish, as a tonic and to treat aliments such as fever and ringworm. The present study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of F. lepicarpa leaves. The antioxidant activity of F. lepicarpa leaves extracts were estimated using FRAP assay (ferric reducing antioxidant potential) method. The test of phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, phytosterols, and absence of alkaloids, tannins, phenols, anthraquinones and triterpenoids. The result obtained from this study provides information that F. lepicarpa has antioxidant activity and possesses the potential to be used to treat or prevent degenerative diseases where oxidative stress is implicated. Further studies are in progress to evaluate the in vivo potential of F. lepicarpa in animal model of carbon tetrachloride mediated oxidative tissue injury. View article

Pharmacophore Analysis of Moringa oleifera Seeds Constituent As Anti-diabetic Properties
Ardy Mursyid Romli; Mohd. Razip Asaruddin; Sam Ezekiel Radhakrishnan; Mohammad Farhan Ariffeen Rosli; Tiara Nales Nyawai. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 366 - 371
Abstract Pharmacophore modeling approach is a computer-aided drug design (CADD) method which possessed potential as the most promising candidates to focus on the experimental efforts in modern medicinal chemistry. M. oleifera, a well known traditional medicine used for many natural therapeutic such as treatment of inflammation, headache and to combat vitamin deficiency. One of the most important properties that found in M. oleifera seeds is anti-diabetic which can prevent from rising of blood sugar level in the body. By using ligand-based pharmacophore Modelling approach, four of established diabetic medicined which is (glibenclamide), (Metformin), (Repaglinide) and (nateglinide) from published literature and database (traning set) used to generate the pharmacophore modelling using Ligandscout 4.1 computer software along with the seeds constituent (test set) to determines the closest proximity.The selected seeds contituent are (4-(-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate), (4-(4¢-o-acetyl-a-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl isothio- cyanate), (4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy ) benzyl glucosinolate a), (niazimicin), (pterygospermin), (quecertin) and (kaempferol). Result shown the best constituent which is 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl glucosinolate and 4-(4-o-acetyl-a-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl isothiocyanate show anti diabetic properties. View article

An Avaluation of Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Potential of Cynometra cauliflora (Nam-nam, Fabaceae)
Azalina Farina Abd Aziz; Md. Safiul Alam Bhuiyan; Mohammad Iqbal. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 372 - 383
Abstract Oxidative damage of biomolecules is implicated in the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases including diabetes. This has led to intensive investigation aimed at reducing the extent of such oxidative injury. Cynometra cauliflora or normally known as “Nam-nam” is a native of Malaysia, grown mainly in northern peninsular Malaysia and possesses many medicinal values in treating several diseases and for health care maintenance. However, antidiabetic and antioxidative potential of C. cauliflora have not been fully investigated. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidative, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic potentials of C. Cauliflora extract against alloxan induced diabetes rats. Treatment of rats with alloxan resulted in a significant increase (P<0.05) level of blood glucose, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein. On the other hand, oxidative stress was noticed in pancreatic tissue as evidenced by a significant decrease in glutathione level, catalase activity, and also significant increase in malondialdehyde when compared to normal saline control group. Pancreases were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Additionally, serum biochemistry and oxidative stress markers were consistent with the pancreatic histopathological studies. Treatment of diabetic rats with C. Cauliflora extract significantly prevented these alterations and attenuated alloxan-induced oxidative stress. The results of the present study indicated that the hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic potentials of C. Cauliflora might be ascribable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Thus, it concluded that C. Cauliflora may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. View article

Phytochemical Constituents and Antihyperglycemic Activity of Lygodium microphyllum Against Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats
Dg Syahidah Nadiah binti Abdull Majid; Mohammad Iqbal. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 384 - 390
Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex, chronic illness which requires continuous medical care as well as with multifactorial risk-reduction strategies beyond glycaemic control. Approximately 70% of the world’s population use traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants. The present study was designed to evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antihyperglycemic activity of Lygodium microphyllum. The phytochemical screening of the plant showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids. Total phenolic content of leaves was found to be 966.7 ± 0.03 mg/g (expressed as milligram gallic acid equivalent per gram of plant extract). Total flavonoid content of leaves was found to be 42.9 ± 0.01 mg/g (expressed as milligram catechin equivalent/g). Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of alloxan monohydrate at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight in rats. Blood glucose along with oxidative stress markers in pancreatic homogenate was assayed. Pancreas was also examined by haematoxylin/eosin staining. Treatment of diabetic rats with L. microphyllum at the dose level of 300, 400, and 500 mg/kg body weight once a day for 14 days prevented induction in blood glucose and attenuated alloxan induced oxidative stress. The protection was further evident through decreased histopathological alteration in pancreas. As a conclusion, optimistically this study will contribute towards validation of the traditional use of L. microphyllum in the treatment of diabetes. This study may be helpful in the prevention of diabetes complication associated with oxidative stress. View article

Profiling of MicroRNA Expression in Obese and Diabetic-Induced Mice for Biomarker Discovery
Janan N. Hadi; Mohammad Iqbal; Vijay Kumar. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 391 - 395
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (-22 nucleotides) regulatory RNAs involved in many fundamental biological processes. They are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Dysregulated expression of microRNAs has been associated with a variety of diseases, including obesity and diabetes. Obesity is a potential risk factor contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes. Meanwhile, diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases, affecting 6.4% of the world’s adult population. The aim of this study is to identify microRNAs that are differentially expressed in obese, diabetic and control C57BL/6 mice by using small RNA sequencing. Total RNAs were extracted from the serum of the target groups of animals. Next, the small RNAs were sequenced using the TruSeq small RNA Library Prep Kit in a MiSeq Illumina sequencer. A total of 52 up-regulated and 54 down-regulated miRNAs were identified based on the comparison of the log2 fold change of obese and diabetic (with normal mice as control; FC ≥ 2). The obese groups showed 22 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated microRNAs. Meanwhile, in the diabetic group, 32 microRNAs were up-regulated and 29 were down-regulated. This finding will help better understand the mechanism of metabolic disorders and may influence future approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of obesity and diabetes View article

Phytochemical Studies of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Leaves, Stem and Fruits as Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Agents
Mohammad Farhan Ariffeen Rosli; Mohd Razip Asaruddin; Ardy Mursyid Romli; Sam Ezekiel Radhakrishnan; Tiara Nales Nyawai; Muhammad Norhelmi Ahmad. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 396 - 401
Abstract Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, or kemunting (local name) is a well-known medicinal plant used to treat various sickness. R. tomentosa is native to southern and south-eastern Asia. The chemical constituents from leaves, stems and fruits of R. tomentosa was determined. The antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the crude extract and isolated compounds was performed. Screening and assay-guided isolation technique was performed upon the plant extract against Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strain, namely Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureas. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extract will also be assessed by 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The successful isolated compounds were also evaluated for their antibacterial and antioxidant activity. View article

Antibacterial Activity of Surfactin Produced by Bacillus subtilis MSH1
Mohd Hafez Mohd Isa; Mohammed Abdel-Hafiz Faisal Shannaq; Najwa Mohamed; Abdul Rahman Hassan; Najeeb Kaid Nasser Al-Shorgani; Aidil Abdul Hamid. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 402 - 407
Abstract Surfactin is one of the most powerful lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by various strains of Bacillus subtilis, having exceptional surface activity as well as antiviral, antibacterial and antitumor properties. In this study, fermentations in shake flasks were conducted to assess the ability of B. subtilis MSH1 to produce surfactin in Cooper’s media. Investigation of antibacterial activity of surfactin against Shigella dysenteriae and Staphylococcus aureus by using well diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) shows surfactin having potent bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties which potentially could be utilized for commercial antibiotic formulations with medical and pharmaceutical purposes. View article

Pharmacophore Modelling Analysis of Burdock Root Extract and Vanillin Derivatives as Anti-Inflammatory Remedy
Sam Ezekiel Radhakrishnan; Mohammad Farhan Ariffeen Rosli; Ardy Mursyid Romli; Tiara Nales Nyawai; Mohd Razip Asaruddin. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 408 - 413
Abstract Pharmacophore modelling is an important aspect towards modern medicinal chemistry in drug discoveries and computer aided drug design to ease the understanding between the receptor-ligand interactions. Burdock (Arctium lappa), a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine used in various natural therapeutics was chosen due to its anti-inflammatory characteristics of its constituent (arctiin and arctigenin) which meant to inhibit the metabolism of xanthine oxidoreductase. In this study, virtual screening comparison of burdock root constituent and vanillin derivatives were done via structure-based and ligand-based pharmacophore modelling towards the inhibition of xanthine oxidoreductase using Ligand Scout 4.1 software. From pharmacophore modelling analysis burdock root constituents (arctiin and actigenin) are the best anti-inflammatory compared to vanillin derivatives and clinical applied remedy. View article

Antiproliferative Effect of Strobilanthes crispus on MCF-7 Cell Line
Norasyidah Gordani; Bo Eng Cheong; Peik Lin Teoh. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 414 - 419
Abstract Despite the advancement of chemical biology and combinatorial chemistry, natural products remain a potent source of the anticancer drug development today. Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) which is from the Acanthaceae family has been traditionally used as medicine in several countries and reported to have anticancer, antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, wound healing and antiulcerogenic activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the antiproliferative properties of S. crispus towards breast cancer cell line. The chemical compounds were extracted from various parts of the plant using methanol then followed by liquid-liquid partition. The antiproliferative effects of these extracts were tested on MCF-7. Among the extracts, only five showed inhibition of cell proliferation in MCF-7. The best antiproliferative activity was observed in stem ethyl acetate and leaf water extract with the IC50 value of 38 µg/ml and 23 µg/ml respectively. However, the IC50 values for stem chloroform, leaf methanol and leaf chloroform extracts were at the range of 70-90 µg/ml. Treatment with S. crispus extracts also caused morphological changes on MCF-7 cells. Chromatin condensation and peripheral aggregation of nuclear chromatin were observed in the treated cells. However, further investigation is needed to understand its underlying mechanisms. View article

ISSR-PCR Fingerprinting of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) Seaweed Varieties From Sabah, Malaysia
Grace Joy Wei Lie Chin; Mohd Zarifi Mohamad; Salahaudin Maili; Wilson Thau Lym Yong; Kenneth Francis Rodrigues. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 420 - 425
Abstract Kappaphycus and Eucheuma seaweeds are commonly cultivated for carrageenan production in Sabah, Malaysia. Identification of the different varieties of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma seaweeds is important because certain seaweed varieties of the same species exhibit desired characteristics such as higher carrageenan content, faster growth rates and resistance to disease. The present study set forth to characterize Kappaphycus and Eucheuma seaweed varieties based on the genetic fingerprinting using inter-simple sequence repeat–polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR) method. A total of eight ISSR primers were used to produce distinct and reproducible patterns of polymorphic bands. A total of 1494 bands of 180 to 4,600 bp were successfully amplified, of which 94.3% were polymorphic. The dendogram results showed a clear differentiation among the cultivar varieties of Kappaphycus seaweed only; however Eucheuma seaweed varieties have the same band profiles. Interestingly, 22 identical variety-specific ISSR bands were obtained from 30 seaweed samples and these can be applied as molecular tools for the identification of seaweed varieties. The data obtained from ISSR analysis can be used in breeding technology and various other applications for development of seaweed industries. View article

Addition of Virgin Coconut Oil: Influence on the Nutritional Value and Consumer Acceptance of Dark Chocolate
Siti Nor Azlina Abd Rashid; Mailin Misson; Harisun Yaakob; Norliza Abdul Latiff; Mohamad Roji Sarmidi. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 426 - 431
Abstract The nutritional properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO) is well known throughout the world but the oily mouthfeel is limiting its oral consumption. The addition of VCO into dark chocolate will offer a new way of consuming VCO as well as improving the dark chocolate’s nutritional properties. VCO was added into the dark chocolate formulation and the functional properties of the new virgin coconut oil (VCO) dark chocolate were investigated against selected commercial dark chocolates as references. Total phenolics content and Dipehnyl-1-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity analyses were performed to determine its antioxidant properties. VCO chocolate was tested for proximate analysis to determine its nutrition content. Sensory evaluation was also done to determine the consumer acceptability. It was found that the VCO chocolate has the highest total phenolic content (7.92 mg/g) in comparison with reference chocolate (7.48 mg/g, 7.49 mg/g, and 7.52 mg/g). Proximate analysis showed that the nutrition of VCO chocolate is high in fat, protein and ash. The sensory result showed that addition of VCO into dark chocolate formulation is acceptable among consumer. VCO chocolates proved to enhance nutritional properties of dark chocolate thereby offering a potential use for nutraceuticals and functional application. View article


Endotoxin Characterization – Effects of Metal Ions on Endotoxins Zeta Potential under Various Concentrations and pH Conditions
Elvina Clarie Dullah; Clarence M. Ongkudon. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(3-3), 432 - 436
Abstract Endotoxin has unique characteristics such as ability to form a stable interaction with other biomolecules as well as high temperature and pH tolerance. These characteristics make its removal difficult especially during the production of biotherapeutic drugs. Endotoxins contamination in biopharmaceutical products can result in sepsis, tissue damage, inflammation, fever and even lead to death. The choice of an efficient method in removing endotoxins from biopharmaceutical products is rather perplexing as the method could affect the biological properties of the products. Previous studies have found that divalent metal ions, such as zinc sulphate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride have better aggregative effects on endotoxins compared to that on plasmid DNA, thus, these metal ions may be potentially useful in the selective removal of endotoxin from biopharmaceutical products. The main focus of this study was to investigate the effects of metal ions effects on endotoxins under various parameters such as pH and concentration. In the present study, zeta potential analysis was employed to measure the effects of metal ions on endotoxin. The observed experimental data showed significant changes in zeta potential of endotoxins when compared with the control (i.e., untreated endotoxin). Apparently, the magnitude of zeta potential of endotoxins changed after treatments with metal ions at different pH and concentrations. Therefore, it can be concluded that the apparent effect of metal ions on endotoxins zeta potential increases in the order of Zn2+<Ca2+< Mg2+. This study serves as a basis for improved endotoxin monitoring in biomanufacturing. View article

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