Volume 4, Issue No 2, Science and Natural Resources 2017

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Issues in Volume 4
I No 1 II No 2 (this issue) II No 3 II No 3-2 II No 3-3 II No 4 I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

Full Articles

Quantification and Herbicidal Activity of Mimosine from Leucaenaleucocephala (Lam.) de Wit
Ismail Sahid; Muhamad Safwan Ishak; Fatimah Sh Bajrai; Khairiatul Mardiana Jansar; Nornasuha Yusoff. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 62 - 67
Abstract Laboratory experiments have been performed to quantify the amount of mimosine (an allelochemical) from Leucaena leucocephala and evaluate the herbicidal activity of mimosine on selected invasive weeds in Malaysia. The mimosine amount in an aqueous extract of shoot, mature leaf, and seed parts of L. leucocephala were quantified by utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography. The herbicidal activity of mimosine was tested on the growth (i.e., radicle length, shoot length, and fresh weight) of three selected invasive weed species (i.e., Ageratum conyzoides, Emilia sonchifolia, and Tridax procumbens) in five different concentrations (i.e., 0, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm) by utilizing the bioassay petri dish method. The mimosine amount was highest in the shoot aqueous extract (1.41 × 104 ppm), followed by the seed aqueous extract (8,463 ppm), and finally, the mature leaf aqueous extract (1,881 ppm). Mimosine inhibited the growth of weed species as the concentration increased. More than 50% inhibition of all the bioassay weed species was observed when they were applied at the mimosine concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm. These results provide benchmark information for controlling weeds in the agriculture field in a sustainable manner and for the future development of bioherbicides. View article

Physicochemical Characteristics of Different Rice Varieties Found in Sabah, Malaysia
Mok Sam Lum. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 68 - 75
Abstract Five rice varieties found in Sabah (white, red, black, brown and aroma rice) were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics. The relationship between different properties was determined using Pearson correlation. The varieties showed significant variations in their physicochemical characteristics. Thousand grains weight, length–breadth ratio, and moisture content ranged between 15.30-20.90 g, 2.18-3.33, and 12.30-16.40%, respectively among the varieties. Minimum cooking time, water uptake ratio, gruel solid loss, and elongation ratio varied between 21.97-47.20 min, 2.30-3.51 g/g, 6.02-13.62% and 1.25-1.65 respectively. Brown rice showed a lower elongation ratio and water uptake ratio, and a higher cooking time than the other rice varieties. The water uptake and elongation ratio of rice kernels showed a negative correlation with cooking time, with a correlation coefficient of -0.960 and -0.900 respectively (p≤0.05). Starch content, starch swelling power, and amylose content of the rice varieties ranged between 33.73-64.98%, 9.31-13.01 g/g and 10.83-14.93% respectively. The results suggest the rice varieties in Sabah can serve as gene sources in rice breeding programme for grain quality. View article

Correlations between Feed Conversion Efficiency, Rainfall, Nitrogen (N) Application, and Mobilised Body Energy (MELWL) of a Cut-and-Carry Feedlot Cattle Farming System at SPT 16 Tawau, Sabah and Implications for Feedlot
Januarius Gobilik; Lorren Adam; Punimin Abdullah; Harun Abas; Stephen Todd Morris; Cory Matthew; Yeo Boon Kiat. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 76 - 83
Abstract Little is known about factors influencing pastoral systems in cattle production in Sabah. Metabolic energy budgeting (MEB) was introduced to assess feed conversion efficiency (FCE) of a cut-and-carry feedlot cattle farming system at SPT Tawau, Sabah and its correlations with rainfall, Nitrogen (N) application, and mobilised body energy (MEMELWL) were assessed. The results indicated that there is a trend that high farm rainfall, N application, and MEMELWL will improve FCE. The relationship, however, is complex where all three variables as well as the farm management procedures may act in synergy. High N application during low rainfall, for example, will not lead to high FCE, but when rainfall increases, the benefit of the N added will be apparent. High MEMELWL will lead to low FCE, but with nutrient correction (with supplement), the production cycle that has high MEMELWL may yield a better overall FCE. It is recommended that more research be done to establish farm management guidelines with better perspectives on N application, farm rainfall and pasture harvesting, as well as the understanding of the energetics and the role of dietary supplements on the recovery of body weight for improving beef production of the cut-and-carry feedlot cattle farming system in Sabah. View article

Synthesis of 6-bromo-2-oxindole from 2,5-dibromonitrobenzene: A more detailed and modified pathway
Shu Er Tan; Mohd Sani Sarjadi. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 84 - 91
Abstract This present work reports a modified and more detailed experimental and purification procedure to synthesize 6-bromo-2-oxindole (2). The cost to obtain (2) in commercial is relatively more expensive than to synthesize from its precursor, known as 2,5-dibromonitrobenzene (1). This synthesis procedure involved two consecutive steps. The first step involved the nucleophilic attacked of (1) by diethyl malonate and formed an intermediate, i.e. diethyl-2-(4-bromo-2-nitrophenyl) malonate. For the second step, this intermediate undergone acid hydrolysis, decarboxylation, reesterification, radical reduction, and finally ring closure to obtain the desired (2). View article

Silver Nanoparticles Biotransforming Bacteria Isolated from Silver-Craft Waste
Afrizka P. Sari; Fitri Nurhidayati; Harsojo; Endang S. Soetarto. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 92 - 97
Abstract The use of silver resistant bacteria in the synthesis of nanoparticles emerges as an eco-friendly approach. In the current study, biotransformation of silver ion becomes silver nanoparticles by silver resistant bacteria BAgBK3 was reported. These transformed silver nanoparticles were observed using UV-Visible spectrophotometery and TEM. The absorption of silver colloids has detected a broad peak at 410 nm corresponding to the plasma resonance of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical shape with a size in the range of 9 – 13 nm. It was scattered around the edge and around of bacteria cell. Nitrate reductase enzyme involved in the biotransformation of silver ion to silver nanoparticles. Isolate strain BAgBK-3 is a promising bacteria for AgNPs biotransformation. View article

Application of Different Techniques to Harvest Microalgae
Azima Syafaini Japar; Nur Mutmainnah Azis; Mohd. Sobri Takriff; NazlinaHaiza Mohd Yasin. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 98 - 108
Abstract The appropriate technologies for microalgae harvesting are vital to enhanced economic feasibility prior for biofuel production from microalgae biomass. Efficient harvesting technique is the biggest challenge that needs to be overcome for commercialization of microalgae based biofuel. Furthermore, the small size of microalgae, the same density of cells and growth medium, negative surface charge of microalgae as well as their growth rate are the factors that contribute to the needs of frequent harvesting compared to other plant. The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of three harvesting methods, namely sedimentation, centrifugation, and magnetic separation. Three different locally isolated microalgae species from palm oil mill effluent (POME) that were used in this study are Chlorella sp. UKM2, Coelastrella sp. UKM4 and Chlamydomonas sp. UKM6. Based on the results, centrifugation showed the best performance with 98% harvesting efficiency for Chlorella sp. UKM2 using rotational speed of 7000 rpm for 5 minutes. The harvesting of Chlamydomonas sp. UKM6 by sedimentation using alum gives the lowest efficiency which is 76% after 8 hours. This is due to the selectivity of alum that perform more effective for freshwater microalgae such as Chlorella sp. UKM2 (8%) and Coelastrella sp. UKM4 (81%) compared to Chlamydomonas sp. UKM6. For magnetic separation using iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), Chlorella sp. UKM2 and Coelastrella sp. UKM4 showed 94% of harvesting efficiency, when provided with 500 mg/L of IONPs. This study indicates that centrifugation is the best method for microalgal biomass harvesting due to its high efficiency and most economical technique. View article

The Preliminary Survey of Bird Populations in Kinabalu Park with Different Noise Level
Auddrey Ambrose; Jephte Sompud; Oswald Aisat Igau; Rimi Repin; Alim Biun. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 109 - 117
Abstract Birdwatching activity has become one of the main attractions among tourists in Kinabalu National Park. Therefore, the number of tourists that come inside the park were directly contribute to the increasing number of vehicles inside the park. To date, there is no studies that have been done in Malaysia to investigate the response of birds on traffic noise. Therefore, this research was conducted to study the impact of traffic noise on bird population in Kinabalu Park. The study includes two methods, i.e., traffic noise mapping and bird survey. Traffic Noise Mapping involves identifying High Traffic Noise Zone and Low Traffic Noise Zone based on the existing trails by using a digital sound level meter. High Traffic Noise Zone was classified as noise level above ≥60dB and Low Traffic Noise Zone was classified as noise level below 60dB. One control site was selected which was far from the traffic noise. Bird survey was done by using point count method. A total of 1150 birds were recorded of which were 35 species and 20 families. Pearson Correlation shows very significant and negative correlation of traffic noise with bird’s species richness and bird abundance of which were (r = -0.671, p<0.000) and (r = -0.753, p<0.000), respectively. The results in this study show birds’ population in Kinabalu Park was very significantly reduce both in species richness as well as abundance in High Traffic Noise Zone. We recommend that there should be a mechanism that is established by the Park management to control the number of vehicle that enters the Park. Alternative mode of transportation inside the Park such as electric powered buggy is recommended to address the issue of traffic noise around the park. View article

Comparison of Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Three Fish Species between Regulated and Natural Rivers
Iskandar Noor; Lee Nyanti; Ling Teck Yee; Jongkar Grinang. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 118 - 122
Abstract Batang Rajang and Batang Baleh are two of the main rivers located in Sarawak, Malaysia. Both rivers used to be a natural river system. However, after the impoundment of Bakun Hydroelectric dam in 2004, the flow regime in Batang Rajang was transformed into a regulated flow. This change in flow regime had a potential to leave some impacts on the fish community. Therefore, this study utilizes the Length-Weight Relationship (LWR) together with condition factor (K) to determine the impact of regulated flow towards the fish community by comparing it to the natural flow regime. Prior to this study, no attempt has been conducted to compare the growth pattern of these species that are present in both river systems. The main objective of this study was to record and compare the differences in LWR of these species between Batang Rajang and Batang Baleh. The species selected for this study are Barbonymus schwanenfeldii, Cyclocheilichthys armatus and Parachela oxygastroides. Samples were collected using gill net from various mesh sizes. The formula used for the LWR is log W= log a + b logL. The results showed that individuals from all three species that lived in natural river showed a clear single LWR curve, meanwhile individuals that lived in regulated river showed scattered LWR curve. The LWR and K factor of B. schwanenfeldii, C. armatus and P. oxygastroides differ between Batang Rajang and Batang Baleh indicating regulation of river flow has impact on the fish community. View article

Transformation of zinc oxide nanoparticles under environmentally relevant conditions: influence of pH and ionic strength
Valach A. Velintine; Boon Siong Wee; Suk Fun Chin; Kuan Ying Kok. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 123 - 136
Abstract The demands from nanotechnology industry have been increasing every year. The number of usage of ZnO nanoparticles in the consumer products is also rapidly increasing. The release of nanoparticles to the environment may affect the environment itself and eventually on the human health. Water chemistry such as pH and ionic strength play important roles in the release of Zn ions. In this study, two commercially available zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles of size < 50 nm and < 100 nm were purchased and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. XRD and TEM confirmed that the size of the particles was in the range stated at the labels. The dissolutions were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). It was found that the dissolution is higher at pH 1 and decreased as the pH increased. In terms of ionic strength, small size nanoparticles are stable at lower pH while bigger size is ionic strength dependence. View article

Noise Levels of Sand and Stone Quarry at Kota Belud Sabah
Norfadillahusna Yakup; Carolyn Payus. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 137 - 142
Abstract Noise is unwanted sound that leads to major annoyance to the human ear. Uncontrolled emission of noise in sand and stone industry causing the increase of noise pollution amongst the workers and local people who live near the quarry. Overexposure of noise may raise the problem ranged from annoyance to hearing impairment. The study has been conducted in sand and stone quarry at Kota Belud District. Seven sites have been chosen that is water pump, water injector, roller sand screen, main office, weighting office, stone quarry and residence. The result shows that all sites are exceeding permissible limit set by DOE (Department of Environment) and NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational, Safety and Health) except main office and weighting office. View article

Water Runoff Quality of Green Roof using Natural Fibres and Recycle Waste Material
Nurul Shahadahtul Afizah Asman; Salinah Dullah; Abdul Karim Mirasa; Janice Lynn Ayog; Harimi Djamila. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 143 - 148
Abstract This paper investigates the water quality characteristics of green roofs runoff. Parameter included are pH value, total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity and chemical oxygen demand. The data were collected from nine different test bed under simulated rainfall. Three types of recycled waste are selected for each test bed which is rubber crumbs, palm oil shell, and polyfoam. Natural fibres as the filter layer in green roofs are placed on top of the drainage layer. Natural fibres chosen are coconut fibre, palm oil fibre and sugarcanes fibres. Another test bed with waterproofing layer as a control. From the results obtained shows that rubber crumbs are suitable as a drainage layer and, palm oil fibre or coconut fibre are suitable for filter layer of green roofs. A green roofs should be able to neutralised acid rain by stabilizing the pH, reduce the turbidity, total suspended solid (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). View article

The Development of Intensity-Duration Frequency Curve for Ulu Moyog and Kaiduan Station of Sabah
Nicklos Jefrin; Nurmin Bolong; Justin Sentian; Ismail Abustan; Thamer Ahmad Mohammad; Janice Lynn Ayog. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 149 - 156
Abstract This paper aims to develop the intensity-duration frequency curve for Ulu Moyog and Kaiduan station and to determine the suitable distribution to be used to analyze the rainfall data. Rainfall data is analyzed using Log-Pearson and Gumbel’s distribution. Rainfall data are taken from 2 station, Ulu Moyong station and Kaiduan station. The IDF curve was plotted by Log-Pearson III distribution and Gumbel’s distribution and the values obtained are the estimated rainfall. The observed rainfall and estimated rainfall are used to test the goodness of fitting for the estimation. Chi-square test is used to test the goodness of plotting for the observed hydrological data. From the analysis by Chi-square test in both stations, it is concluded that Gumbel’s (Ulu Moyog: 2.84, Kaiduan:2.95) gave more fitness compared to Log-Pearson III distribution(Ulu Moyog:12.63 , Kaiduan:34.66). Therefore, Gumbel’s distribution is a better distribution to be used in the west coast of Sabah. View article

Students’ Interpretation and Commitment of Conservation Contents based on School Context
Elver Fazly Charlie; Fiffy Hanisdah Saikim; Muhammad Suhaimi Taat. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 157 - 165
Abstract View article
This paper has been removed due to similarity to:
Charlie, E. F., Taat, M. S. & Saikim, F. H. 2017. Students’ Interpretation and Commitment of Conservation Contents Based on School Context. Advanced Science Letter, 23(4), 2704-2708.

Contingent Valuation on Urban Trees in City of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
Muhammad Azrul Hilmi; Andy R. Mojiol. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 166 - 173
Abstract This paper explores the function of urban trees in the City of Kota Kinabalu by finding the perception of public in the City about the trees and using Contingent ValuationMethod (CVM) to find the valuation of urban tree in the city. Willingness to Pay (WTP) was chosen to use in the research to find the economic valuation of urban trees in city of Kota Kinabalu. The payment vehicle in the questionnaire is respondent WTP on donation and the elicitation method is open-ended question. A total of 121 questionnaires were selected for analysis from 154 questionnaires that distributed throughout the research. The majority of respondent are happy with the trees number and the function of trees in the city. Meanwhile, majority of respondent are willing to pay (donation) for increasing the number of trees in the city based on RM 5.00 that elicited. From the maximum WTP that stated, only 64 of questionnaires were selected for estimation of WTP after calculated the weakness of CVM. The mean and median of the WTP is calculated using basic mathematical and the value for mean is RM 7.84, while for the median is RM 5.00. Then, maximum aggregate WTP is calculated based on OLS regression model, maximum aggregate WTP= -2.717+8.481 (NT)-3.423(BG )+ 4.296 (PG)+0.926 (PD) is find out where initial WTP stated , races, transportation and education have relationship with the WTP respondents stated. Based on the model, the maximum value of WTP is RM 2.54. Then, the total economic value of urban trees in the area based on the valuation, is calculated, for mean is RM 3,629,629.92 , median is RM 2,314,815.00 and maximum aggregate value is RM 1,175,926.02. Using 2% of market interest rate, the present value of the urban trees is RM 1,086,373.87. View article

Visitors’ Willingness To Pay (WTP) at Kionsom Recreation Centre, Inanam - Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
Andy Russel Mojiol; Ziyad Zamri; Muhammad Azrul Hilmi; Maskir Gitom. 2017. Transactions on Science and Technology, 4(2), 174 - 182
Abstract Aim of this study is to determine the willingness to pay (WTP) of visitors to pay admission fees for conservation at Kionsom Recreation Centre (KRC) and opinion on ecosystem services of KRC. Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) of WTP is used to find out the respondents payment valuation on study areas by using open-ended payment vehicle. 140 of questionnaire is distributed in the area using convenience sampling but only 100 questionnaire are selected as they are fully answered by the respondents. Result showed that factor of WTP influenced by gender, age and distance between respondents place to Kionsom Recreational Centre. A regression model was created and the results shows that gender, age and distance have relationship on the amount of WTP that stated by respondents. Mean maximum WTP by per visitor to KRC is RM 2.89. Besides, most of the respondents valued highly the services of tree and ecosystem services of the site. The visitors also agrees that conservation fee collected are suitable for development purposes and add more recreation activities to attract visitor to visit Kionsom Recreational Centre (KRC). Future study on differences payment vehicle and elicitation method of contingent valuation on the site is highly recommend. View article

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