Volume 11, Issue No 2-2, July 2024

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Issues in Volume 11
I No 1 II No 2 II No 2-2 (this issue) II No 3 II No 4 I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

Original Articles

Determination of static friction coefficient of a material using clamp method
Ismisafwan Madso; Gan Jet Hong Melvin; Bih-Lii Chua. 2024. Transactions on Science and Technology, 11(2-2), 90 - 96.
Abstract The increasing importance of climbing mechanisms in construction and maintenance work arises from the necessity of safe and efficient access to hard-to-reach areas. However, there is still limited research on the clamping force of various materials required for developing climbing mechanisms. To address this, further research is needed to investigate the clamping force and static coefficient of friction of different materials on-site. The main objective of this research is to explore the relationship between clamping force, static coefficient of friction, and applied gravitational force while investigating the static coefficient of friction of different materials on a pole. A clamping device has been proposed for evaluating the static coefficient of friction for different plastics and rubbers. A test method using clamping force as independent variable has been discussed for using such apparatus. The experimental results revealed that rubber materials generally exhibit higher static coefficient of friction than plastic materials. Its findings can serve as a valuable foundation for future research and the development of climbing mechanisms to enhance their usage in construction and maintenance work.
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Numerical analysis of the aerodynamic and geometric relationship of a vertical axis wind turbine
Wei Kee Go; Nurfarina Batrisyia Muhammad Hairi; Ahmad Fazlizan; Kok Hoe Wong; Wan Khairul Muzammil. 2024. Transactions on Science and Technology, 11(2-2), 97 - 102.
Abstract The demand for wind energy has a high potential as an alternative energy source. Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) has good developmental potential for unfavourable wind conditions, especially in urban areas, such as low wind speed. This paper aims to conduct a comprehensive numerical analysis of the two-dimensional H-Darrieus VAWT to understand the VAWT's performance with different solidities. The VAWTs were subjected to low and ultra-low Reynolds number conditions with various tip speed ratio (TSR) values. The numerical investigation was conducted using ANSYS Fluent software using high-fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology. Based on previous studies' experiences and data, different computational settings in CFD simulation were employed. The geometric parameters of the study were validated against published simulation and experimental data to ensure the accuracy of the simulation results obtained in this study. The CFD simulation results demonstrated that only a high solidity turbine (σ = 1.20) at a low TSR of 2.0 and a low solidity turbine (σ = 0.60) at a moderately high TSR of 2.5 could generate the optimal quantity of energy since instantaneous moment coefficient lies in the positive region while operating under low Re 75000. In contrast, some turbine configurations produced negative Cm at specific operational TSR ranges when the rotor was subjected to low Re (15000) and ultra-low Re (5000 and 9000). According to the results, the negative instantaneous moment and power coefficients meant that the wind turbine could not be optimally configured due to insufficient power converted from the wind's kinetic energy.
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Embossed fins for improved PV module efficiency - A CFD study
Zhang Genge; Ram Kumar Periasamy; Mohd Suffian Misaran; Stevenson Guramun. 2024. Transactions on Science and Technology, 11(2-2), 103 - 108.
Abstract The escalating global demand for renewable energy has propelled the adoption of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) panels. However, the efficiency of these panels is often compromised by elevated operating temperatures. This study aims to systematically investigate the influence of embossed fins on the thermal performance of solar PV modules using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The study also delves into the underlying mechanisms by which emboss geometries modulate fluid flow and induce turbulence, thereby affecting convective heat transfer efficiency. The simulations, when validated against experimental data, exhibited a high accuracy with a maximum difference of 4.45%. Results indicate that the triangular emboss fin is the most effective in enhancing heat transfer by convection, achieving the lowest average PV module surface temperature of 41.78 °C. This study gives vital insights on the impact of emboss fin in maximizing the thermal efficiency of solar PV systems, hence presenting a roadmap for design advances in PV module cooling methods.
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Optimal methodologies for delaminating End-of-Life crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic panels
Siti Nurfadilah Binti Jaini; Aszili Bin Basri. 2024. Transactions on Science and Technology, 11(2-2), 109 - 114.
Abstract The increasing usage along with various programs introduced by the Malaysian government for solar energy will lead to a surge in the disposal of defective solar modules. Recycling of defective or End-of-Life (EoL) solar modules becoming the sustainable solution instead of direct disposal to the landfill. Layering structure of built-in solar module often hinders the recycling process. Efficient and cost-effective methodologies must be identified for delaminating the modules which include physical separation and thermal treatment. This is to assure each material comprised in the solar module such as glass, metal scrap, silicon, and plastic could be retrieved and processed for further usage. Besides layering structure, crystalline silicon solar module often encapsulated by ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) for preventing degradation of performance. Identifying the optimal conditions specifically temperature and duration during thermal treatment are necessary to remove EVA encapsulation between each layer of solar module. Accordingly, applying heat from 150 – 200 within 30s - 2min are the optimal conditions for detaching adhesiveness of EVA encapsulation and delaminating the layering structure of solar module that is unachievable solely through the physical separation. Besides, the utility cost of the proposed thermal process remained minimum. This study indicates the proposed methodologies are capable of delaminating damaged or EoL solar module for recycling and retrieving valuable materials purposes.
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Review Articles

A review on the effectiveness of different cooling method in improving mechanical properties and mitigating heat-induced distortion of 3mm thick SS316L plate - GTAW single-pass buttwelds
Ahmad Zabidi Md Taib; Mohd Suffian Misaran; Abdullah Mohd Tahir. 2024. Transactions on Science and Technology, 11(2-2), 115 - 126.
Abstract The cooling method in welding has evolved from a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) process to in-process cooling or continuous cooling during the welding procedure. The main reasons for this, in general, are to increase the cooling rate of the material to avoid the widespread area of heat input onto the base metal, which will lessen the wide heat-affected zone (HAZ) and prevent HAZ softening phenomena. These chain actions have proven effective in improving the mechanical properties and heat-induced distortion of various metals and welding process. However, from the literature study, the pinpoint study in-cooling method used in a 3mm thick SS316L plate welded using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) has yet to be explored by any literature. This review is essential as the specific thickness of SS316L plate is used in vast industry applications, more over the maximum penetration of GTAW is approximately at 3 mm. This article additionally offers a comprehensive survey of the literature on cooling methods for solving problems in fusion and non-fusion welding involving various metals. The significant findings are then summarized to identify critical solutions to related issues and interesting potential areas that require further investigation to overcome or to reduce those challenges and problems. The recommendation is also made based on the summary of how the cooling method procedure will be applied to 3mm thick SS316L GTAW welds.
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