Volume 10, Issue No 4, December 2023

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Issues in Volume 10
I No 1 II No 2 II No 2-2 II No 3 II No 4 (this issue) I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

In vitro regeneration of Borneo endemic orchid Vanda hastifera Rchb.f through protocorm like-bodies
Devina David; Bong Chung Shyan; Roslina Jawan; Hartinie Marbawi; Jualang Azlan Gansau. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(4), 175 - 180.
Abstract A protocol for in vitro regeneration of Vanda hastifera via protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) induction from the leaf section was established. In this study, young leaves from the in vitro-grown seedlings of V. hastifera were divided into apical and basal segments and cultured on Mitra basal media. The effect of individual and combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) including 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin, a-naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at different concentrations were studied. PLBs were initiated at the cut-end surfaces after 35 days of culture via direct or indirect regeneration pathways. The addition of PGRs singly promoted the formation of (PLBs) from both leaf segments, however, the combination of 4.0mg/L of BAP + 4.0mg/L of NAA obtained the highest PLBs formation (10.45 ± 2.47) from the leaf base explant. The present finding holds significant importance as it not only promotes large-scale cultivation but also contributes to the conservation of this native orchid species.
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Integrated Genetic Algorithm and Back-Propagation Neural Network Approach for Fault Detection and Prediction in the Tennessee Eastman Process
Qi Ji; Azura Che Soh; Ribhan Zafira Abdul Rahman; Raja Kamil Raja Ahmad; Siti Anom Ahmad. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(4), 181 - 187.
Abstract The current era emphasizes the application of intelligent algorithms for automating industrial processes. Among these, fault detection and prediction take precedence. This research introduces fault detection method that combine the genetic algorithm with back-propagation neural networks (GA-BPNN). The integration of these two methods, GA-BPNN, enhances their effectiveness. GA-BPNN effectively addresses the challenges of poor convergence in traditional genetic algorithms (GAs) and the difficulty of accurately defining parameters in back-propagation neural networks (BPNNs). In this approach, BPNN serves as the foundational framework, while GA dynamically optimizes various parameters within the BPNN. The proposed method GA-BPNN exhibits excellent parameter self-regulation ability and can adapt to various training conditions. This optimization process enhances precision and speed, making GA-BPNN a powerful and efficient solution. The Tennessee Eastman (TE) chemical process is employed as the simulated domain to validate the efficacy and superiority of the GA-BPNN approach in process control. The simulation results indicate that the GA-BPNN method outperforms the traditional BPNN. Additionally, the proposed method demonstrates excellent self-regulation ability, automatically optimizing parameters, and ensuring outstanding adaptability and learning ability in various situations.
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Enhanced fish diversity following active coral reef restoration efforts in Tun Sakaran Marine Park, Sabah, Malaysian coral triangle
Elvin Michael Bavoh; Bernardette Mabel Manjaji-Matsumoto; Abdul Jalil Mapait; Mohamad Nara Ahmad; Rubiah Abdul Lahum. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(4), 188 - 197.
Abstract Located in the heart of Malaysia’s Coral Triangle – a region well-known for its outstanding marine biodiversity – are two Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), the Tun Sakaran Marine Park (TSMP) and Sipadan Island Park (SIP). The remote seascapes were both gazetted as an MPA in the same year, 2004, on widespread damaged coral reef ecosystems due mainly to the rampant use of prohibited fishing devices and unsustainable fishing practices targeting coral reef fishes. Our study was conducted in the TSMP, where active coral reef restoration and rehabilitation efforts using the coral frame method have been in place by the park management authority since 2011. The objectives of this study are 1) to determine the fish biodiversity and estimate the fish species abundance in TSMP, and 2) to determine the correlation between hard coral cover on coral frames and the diversity and abundance of reef fishes. Two coral reef restoration sites within TSMP were selected as the study stations. Underwater observations were made between July 2020 and January 2021, using Baited Remote Underwater Video Systems (BRUVS). Data on substrate type were obtained from photos taken by cameras placed adjacent to the deployed BRUVS, at the top of the coral frames. The photos were analysed to determine the types of substrate cover using the Coral Point Count with Excel Extension (CPCe) software. The results show a total of 3,208 individual fishes, identified into 146 species from 27 families. The three most abundant families, which make up just over half (52%) of the total abundance are Caesionidae, comprising 19.73% of the total composition, followed by Pomacentridae (16.05%) and Labridae (15.93%). Moon Wrasse, Thalassoma lunare is the most abundant species comprising 11.47% of the total abundance of fishes observed, while only four species of elasmobranchs, all batoids, were recorded. Notably, two of the four batoid species are listed as vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of threatened species. As for the type of substrate cover on the coral frame, a total of 2,750 points were categorized from 50 photos combined from both sites. Our results show that there are no significant differences (p>0.05) between hard coral cover on coral frames and the reef fish abundance, and between the percentage of hard coral cover on coral frames and the reef fish species at both sites. This is likely due to the low percentage of hard coral cover on the coral frames at both sites which is below 50%, with Site 2 exhibiting a slightly higher cover (37.96%) compared to Site 1 (27.70%). Despite the low percentage, it is noteworthy that the hard coral cover on the coral frames in both sites appears denser and structurally more complex than the adjacent depleted coral reefs. We conclude that active coral reef restoration and rehabilitation efforts are important in accelerating the re-colonization of damaged coral reefs by coral reef inhabitants, particularly by juvenile coral reef fishes. Lessons learned from this study may help park managers in refining coral reef restoration techniques of the damaged reefs.
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Design and development of autonomous ground-level weather monitoring station
Sitti Ernadia Syafiqah Erman; Jedol Dayou. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(4), 198 - 205.
Abstract Weather is one of the important factors influencing human daily activities. Not only that, weather also influence societal progress and industries such as agriculture. In general, traditional weather station relied on manual equipment to measure weather parameter. However, the modernization of technologies has introduced personal and professional weather station. Nonetheless, recent technological advancements have introduced long-range personal weather station, but the reliance on Wi-Fi limits the access to weather data in areas with poor internet coverage. In addition to this limitation, some of these weather stations may require manual data storage, such as using memory cards, which can prevent users to have access to weather data remotely. Furthermore, certain weather stations may utilize bluetooth as an alternative communication method. However, bluetooth short-range nature can restrict remote access to weather data, presenting challenges in scenarios where users need data from a distance. Meanwhile, for extended data collection in remote, unattended locations or small areas like a greenhouse, professional weather station may introduce inherent inaccuracies due to the fixed locality limitation whereby the location of the professional weather station may be located far away from the user location of interest. Thus, installing multiple automatic weather stations to increase accuracy can be costly. In this paper, an autonomous ground-level weather monitoring station has been built integrating sensors, microcontrollers and software to provide a real-time and reliable weather data as well as the location of the weather station for users. This prototype integrates LoRa technology as the communication medium between the transmitter and receiver. Additionally, this prototype also uses a custom monitoring software to complement the weather station for data processing and visualization thus, catering to both personal and professional needs. Hence, the test was conducted to verify the workability of the overall system. It was found that the transmitter of the weather station was able to transmit weather data wirelessly to the receiver. Simultaneously a custom monitoring software were able to visualize and log the real time data thus providing users with an insight of the current and past weather condition.
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Assessment of seismic vulnerability in reinforced concrete buildings in Tawau, Sabah: A study on damage potential
Samnursidah Samir; Noor Sheena Herayani Harith. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(4), 206 - 217.
Abstract Tawau located in Sabah is deemed to possess a moderate level of seismic activity, primarily because previous earthquakes were concentrated in the Lahad Datu-Tawau region due to the existence of an active fault. Regrettably, a significant number of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in this area lack awareness and comprehension of earthquake-resistant construction practices, which necessitate the evaluation of building vulnerability in high-seismic-hazard zones. The goals of this study are to conduct fieldwork for the evaluation of the damage potential on 105 existing RC buildings and develop a building damage map in the Tawau area. This entails employing Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) surveys in accordance with the FEMA P-154 guidelines, employing a scoring system to assess the potential for damage in buildings, and subsequently presenting the results on a map. The results of this survey reveal that most buildings in this study exhibit plan irregularities and vertical irregularities in their beams do not align with columns and weak or/and soft story, respectively. This survey concludes that the most prevalent damage potential among the surveyed buildings in this area is Grade 3, followed by Grade 4, with the least prevalent being buildings with a Grade 2 damage potential.
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Enhancing readiness for seismic resilience in Kota Belud, Sabah through a comprehensive vulnerability assessment
Nur Izzati Husna Hassan; Noor Sheena Herayani Harith. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(4), 218 - 226.
Abstract Seismic resilience is of paramount importance in regions vulnerable to seismic activity, and this study focuses on enhancing seismic resilience in Kota Belud, Sabah. The unique geological and geographical context, compounded by its proximity to tectonic plate boundaries, exposes Kota Belud to significant seismic risks. The Ranau 2015 earthquake, which occurred in the vicinity, serves as a stark reminder of this vulnerability. Moderate earthquakes, with the potential to cause significant damage, have a range of approximately 100 kilometers from their epicenters, a critical consideration for Kota Belud. This paper explores the damages caused by the Ranau earthquake, emphasizing the need for comprehensive vulnerability assessment and enhanced seismic resilience in the region. The study employs the Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) method to assess the seismic vulnerability of 16 buildings in Kota Belud. The methodology involves preliminary work to streamline on-site RVS surveys, and damage assessment based on FEMA P-154 standards. Results indicate that most buildings fall within Potential Damage Grade 3, highlighting the importance of seismic resilience strategies. A Geographic Information System (GIS) map is created to visualize the seismic risk distribution across Kota Belud, providing valuable insights for disaster mitigation and emergency response planning. The study underscores the necessity of addressing seismic resilience challenges in Kota Belud to ensure the safety and resilience of its communities.
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