Volume 10, Issue No 2-2, August 2023

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Issues in Volume 10
I No 1 II No 2 II No 2-2 (this issue) II No 3 II No 4 I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

Development of concrete eco-paving blocks using crumb rubber granules and Eco-Processed Pozzolan
Habib Musa Mohamad; Nurmin Bolong; Ismail Saad; Lillian Gungat; Mokhtar Ibrahim; Janus Tioon; Rosman Pileh; Mark Delton; Lusry Sikun. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(2-2), 71 - 79.
Abstract This study entails processing and developing end materials in order to create reusable eco-friendly paver block products. The concepts of recycling, reuse, and recovery are critical to reduce the amount of environmental damage caused by indiscriminate trash disposal. As the necessity to recover maximum profits from the management approach is applied while guaranteeing environmental sustainability, the concept of waste to wealth emerges. The objectives of this research are to produce an “eco-friendly paver block” for pedestrian walkways formulated from waste materials such as Eco-Processed Pozzolan (EPP) and crumb rubber from waste tyres. Although the strength of the eco-paver blocks incorporating used EPP and crumb rubber increased by 33%, with water cement ratio is fixed at 0.5. The compressive strength of eco-paver blocks is higher when the EPP and crumb rubber contents are lesser. The strength increased by 35% when EPP and crumb rubber were lesser used. EPP and rubber crumb usage based on M1 design are recommended to use which only 33% of EPP content allowed. Therefore, incorporating EPP and crumb rubber as a component for cement-sand paver block allowed a more sustainable and low-cost paving blocks to be produced.
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Assessment of walkability and public transport services in Luyang, Kota Kinabalu
Lillian Gungat; Nicollyne Justin; Fauziah Mohd Said; Nurmin Bolong; Mohd Azizul Ladin. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(2-2), 80 - 87.
Abstract Excessive carbon dioxide emission is becoming one of the main concerns of the world in recent years. To reduce adverse impacts, walking is the best method as it greatly aids in the reduction of carbon emission released from motorized vehicles. Walkability has always been related to environmental issues around the world. This study investigates the improvement indicators of walkability and public transport service at Luyang, Kota Kinabalu as it has a high concentration of pedestrians especially during morning markets. The study was conducted via field observation and questionnaire distribution and then analyzed by using Analytical Hierarchy Process to determine the safety, connectivity and comfortability indicators with their respective weightages and ranking. It has been found that the most concerning and bothersome factor is comfortability as there are lack of comfortability aspects in Luyang. The most concerning issue regarding the services of bus in Luyang was the amount of bus stops within 800m radius of the boundary area, followed by the frequency of bus and lastly the comfort aspects of public transport services. Along with that, the walkability index in Luyang is satisfactory as they are higher than 0.5, with the highest walkability index of 0.758. Therefore, the walkability index evaluation has been found successful and the factor that should be focused to improve the walkability shall be the comfortability of Luyang.
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Life cycle assessment of plastic waste into furniture using open LCA software
Nurul Shahadahtul Afizah Asman; Mary B. Raymond; Habib Musa Mohamad; Nurmin Bolong. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(2-2), 88 - 94.
Abstract Plastic waste management is one of the most severe environmental issues confronting municipalities worldwide, and it is the most serious environmental issue in Malaysia. Furniture gains attention in the life cycle assessment (LCA) of a net-zero energy building. It was responsible for 10% of the building's impact on global warming and non-renewable energy demand. Therefore, it shall be considered in the building's design. This study evaluates the environmental effects of recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) eco-furniture using the OpenLCA software. The scope of the study considered the cradle-to-gate boundary of recycling and manufacturing 1 kg of the eco-furniture functional unit. This paper assesses the LCA through OpenLCA in obtaining the environmental impact of waste-to-wealth product generation. Primary data (amount of plastic waste, electricity, emission, and water) were gathered in a local recycling centre, EZplast Plastic, data from the European Life Cycle Data database and data from a previous study for the electricity. In addition, the CML Baseline impact method, readily available in the EcoInvent LCIA database, is employed to determine plastic waste performance in their impact categories. Nine environmental impact categories were considered. The result shows that the consumption of electricity and HDPE during the manufacture of eco-furniture resulted in the most significant amount of environmental loading, up to 78% to 90% on all the impact categories.
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Soil response as an effect of various dynamic loading conditions at Klang Valley Area
Aniza Ibrahim; Aminaton Marto; Fakhrurazi Awang Kechik; Ali Selamat. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(2-2), 95 - 104.
Abstract Dynamic loading due to earthquake, rail transit, or machine vibration is a serious concern as these loadings reduce soil shear strength which leads to catastrophic events such as soil instability, and seismic induced loading trigger soil liquefaction. At present, there is limited information regarding the response of dynamic loading towards residual soil in Malaysia. Therefore, initial study is vital to clarify residual soil in determining the response to cyclic loading and evaluate its behavior. The residual soil sample is sourced from a depth of 1 meter from the ground at selected location within the Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM) campus area. Basic soil properties test was performed and cyclic triaxial test with varying loading intensities was carried out. Results show that the pore pressure increases as higher amplitude was imposed on the soil and vice versa. Lower amplitude provides stable pattern of hysteresis loops while it becomes unstable towards higher amplitude. Further research needs to be conducted to evaluate the correlation of subsoil characteristics for disaster management and prevention plan for any dynamic loading leads that to disaster. This research is aligned with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030) adopted by the United Nations that was designed as a protection from catastrophe risk.
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The effect of fine aggregate gradation and filler type on the rheological properties of asphalt
Babak Golchin; Muhammad Nazmi Abdul Rahman; Noor Halizah Abdullah; Lillian Gungat. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(2-2), 105 - 111.
Abstract Fine aggregates provide sufficient stability for asphalt mortars, helping to build up good interlocking characteristics and supporting load capacity for asphalt mixtures. Fillers such as ordinary Portland cement and hydrated lime can improve the rutting resistance and moisture susceptibility of the asphalt mixtures. In this study, the influence of aggregate gradation and filler type on the rheological properties of asphalt mortars was evaluated through a series of laboratory tests. Different asphalt mortar samples were fabricated using two aggregate gradations (median and lower level of fine aggregates) and two different fillers (ordinary Portland cement and hydrated lime). Test results showed that the addition of ordinary Portland cement and hydrated lime can stiffen the asphalt mortar, with hydrated lime showing higher stiffness values compared to ordinary Portland cement. Asphalt mortars with a median aggregate have higher G*/sinδ values compared to asphalt mortars with a lower limit aggregate gradation.
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Maximization of waste recycling in pavement maintenance project
Lillian Gungat; Meor Othman Hamzah; Nur Izzi Md. Yusoff. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(2-2), 112 – 121.
Abstract The most common method of recycling in road maintenance projects in Malaysia is in situ recycling. To maximize waste recycling, plant recycling can be an option since previous studies indicated good performance using reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). However, variability in RAP and mixing temperature are the main concerns in plant recycling. Hence, this study investigates the maximization of waste recycling from road maintenance projects in Malaysia for plant recycling in terms of quality control and the environment. The experimental design consists of materials characterization for three sources of RAP, determination of mixing temperature, analysis of environmental and energy consumption, and optimization of RAP production. The findings showed that based on RAP gradation the quality control in terms of RAP variability was less than 15% coefficient of variance and considered acceptable. The addition of RAP stiffened the RAP mixture which result in increased viscosity and mixing temperature. Higher mixing temperatures produced more greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. Optimization of RAP production indicated that in order to maximize the RAP usage, 50%RAP content added with RH-WMA at 140°C mixing temperature was the most ideal. The proposed design approach and evaluation of waste materials adopted in this study are beneficial for assessing the essential criteria for maximizing waste recycling in the pavement.
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