Volume 10, Issue No 2, June 2023

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Issues in Volume 10
I No 1 II No 2 (this issue) II No 2-2 II No 3 II No 4 I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

Detection of rubber (Heavea brasialiensis) leaf diseases using image processing techniques
Rizqi Elmuna Hidayah; Suzani Mohamad Samuri. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(2), 48 - 53.
Abstract A big threat occurs in rubber plantations in Indonesia. Leaf disease attacks tens of thousands of hectares of rubber land and threatens agricultural sustainability. This situation makes Indonesian farmers vulnerable to the effects of tree disease, which can be fatal if not treated properly. Detection of plant diseases conventionally is very complex and takes a long time. Natural conditions in Kalimantan make it more difficult for farmers to get treatment for the disease. The early detection of leaf diseases using machine learning techniques is foreseen to be necessary. This study uses leaf disease images to detect the type of leaf diseases, whereby image processing techniques are carried out to determine the characteristics of the disease. In the preprocessing stage, the red, green, blue (RGB) color space was changed to hue, saturation, value (HSV). Then, the K-means segmentation is applied with a value of K=3. The gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) performed the extraction to get the carried out using the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) with 99% accuracy result for training data and 93% for testing data with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value of 0.113263. The results show that machine learning method has the potential to help in minimizing losses, improve plant quality and quantity, and help for early detection so that the best treatment steps can be taken.
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Prevalence of parasitic infections of horses in Maiduguri, Nigeria
Esther Solomon Mshelia; Abdullahi Abubakar Biu; ThankGod Emmanuel Onyiche. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(2), 54 - 58.
Abstract Parasitic infections are economically devastating to horses, compromising their health and general performance. The prevalence of parasitic infections amongst one hundred and sixty horses was determined in this study. Faecal samples, blood and ticks were collected from the sampled horses and subjected to standard parasitological techniques for the identification of parasites. An overall prevalence of 30.0 % (48/160) was recorded for faecal helminth ova, with Strongyle ova been the most prevalent. An overall prevalence of 23.1% (37/160) was recorded for haemoparasites, with Theileria equi as the most prevalent 17.5% (28/160) followed by Anaplasma species 5.0% (8/160) and Babesia caballi 0.6% (1/160) as the least encountered. Lastly, the study recorded a prevalence of 25 (15.7%) for tick infestation and Rhipicephalus species was the most prevalent 14.4% (23/160). In conclusion, this study demonstrate that horses are host to a wide assemblage of parasites of economic importance. Therefore, strategic deworming, deticking and veterinary care are recommended to prevent undesirable effects on the health of the animals.
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Evaluation of potential ornamental plants in Sg. Rawog Conservation Area, Sandakan, Sabah and it’s conservation status
Jesleen Linus Dani; Andy Russel Mojiol; Nurliza Hasmat; Colin Goh; Paul Liau. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(2), 59 - 64.
Abstract Wild flora with high attractiveness and has been long prized for its beauty will be planted in gardens and other recreational places to enhance the landscape beautification. Foliage arrangement, branching pattern, and the presence of fruit and flower provide interest, variety and aesthetic appeal to landscapes and even to observers. This study was carried out in Sg. Rawog Conservation Area (SRCA) within the KTS Plantation vicinity. The main objective of this study was to identify ornamental plants, and their International Union Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories based on conservation status and endemism by using the opportunistic sampling method. The selection of the ornamental plant is based on five criterions: 1) It has a good form, shape and size of the plant, 2) It has colorful flowers and fruits, 3) It has attractive colors and arrangement of the foliage, 4) it has good branching pattern, and 5) it is easy for plant to propagate. The survey was conducted twice, in June and August 2019, in existing trails. A total of 24 species belong to 17 different families. The highest number of potential ornamental plants found in Sg Rawog Conservation Area is the Tree (29.2%) followed by the Fern (16.7%) and Shrub (20.8%), Herb (12.5%), 8.3% of which are shared by two plants habit (Pitcher and Palm), and lastly, the lowest is Climber (4.2%). Most plants are in the category Not Evaluated based on IUCN Red List except Dryobalanops aromatic, Dicranopteris linearis, Nepenthes ampularia, and Nepenthes mirabilis. The findings of this study indicate that Sg. Rawog Conservation Area is a home to a large number of plants with the potential of to become ornamental plants, and it plays an essential role in the protection of these species in Sabah. More research may be required to expand the list of plants with the potential to become ornamental plants.
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Composition of Bufo species and their diets in Peri-Urban Area of Lafia Metropolis, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Akwashiki Ombugadu; Ishaya Jeremiah; James Ishaku Maikenti; Hasley Livinus Njila; Samson Andrew Da’an; Sylvester Akolo Attah; Mock Samuel Kure; Victoria Adamu Pam; Cyril Daniel Nkup; Sunday Kajibia Dogo. 2023. Transactions on Science and Technology, 10(2), 65 - 70.
Abstract Toads are amphibians belonging to Bufonidae family and feed on different invertebrates. Thus, the study on composition of Bufo Species and their diets in peri-urban area of Lafia Metropolis, Nasarawa State, Nigeria was carried out from June to August 2021. Random sampling technique was used to collect Bufo species using a hand-held torch light in the evening period from 1800 to 2100 hours. Toads collected were put in a jar containing chloroform and then transported to Zoology Laboratory of Federal University of Lafia for further processing. Thirty-three (33) toads were collected which represents two species in which Bufo muculatus was more dominant 27 (81.81%) over Bufo regularis 6 (18.18%). The diets recorded from sacrificed toads spread across 2 Phyla which include Phylum Arthropoda made up of Orders Hymenoptera (ants) and Coleoptera (beetles) while Phylum Annelida comprised of Opisthopora (earthworm). In conclusion, this study shows the presence of Bufo muculatus and Bufo regularis which play a vital role in creating the necessary ecosystem balance in peri-urban area.
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