Volume 6, Issue No 4, December 2019

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Issues in Volume 6
I No 1 II No 1-2 II No 2 II No 2-2 II No 3 II No 4 (this issue) I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

Full Articles

Preliminary Investigation on the Effect of Centrifugal Force on Germination and Early Growth of Maize (Zea mays L.)
Barka Mshelmbula; Gbenga Akomolafe. 2019. Transactions on Science and Technology, 6(4), 328 - 333
Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effect of centrifugal force on the growth of maize, an important cereal crop in Nigeria. The maize seeds were subjected to centrifugation for three revolutions (1000g, 5000g, and 10000g) for 2, 4 and 6 hours. The seeds were planted and observed for germination and early growth for seven days. Results revealed that seeds treated with 1000g centrifugal force for 4hrs had the highest germination percentage (70%), while 50% of the control seeds germinated at the end of the 7th day. The radicle length in the 10,000g/2hrs treatment was also the highest (24 cm). However, the highest shoot length was observed in the control plants. This showed that though centrifugal force triggered a rapid and higher germination rate in the treated maize plants, it still did not result in higher shoot length in those plants. The experiment should be extended until the yield or maturity stage in order to have more profound observation on this centrifugal force effect on the maize plants. View article

Electronic Nose Detection of Ganoderma boninense Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Using Direct Headspace Analysis
Li Wen Cheah; You Keng Goh; Kah Joo Goh; Maggie Tham; Sze Khai Wong. 2019. Transactions on Science and Technology, 6(4), 334 - 339
Abstract Electronic nose detection techniques have found wide applications in many fields including the medical and health sector, food industry, and also agriculture. Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by Ganoderma boninense is increasingly explored as a reliable means of accurately diagnosing the presence of this important oil palm pathogen, facilitating management of the disease and preventing further spread in the field. For this purpose, we tested an electronic nose (‘zNOSETM 4200’) to detect G. boninense VOCs via direct headspace analysis from samples of trunk cores and inoculated oil palm ramets. We successfully identified five VOC markers (two for healthy tissue, three associated with G. boninense infection). Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of samples and analytical standards, one of the VOC markers for G. boninense-infected palms was positively identified as 2, 4-di-tert-butylphenol. These markers can be used in the next stage of optimization and field testing. View article

Relationship Between Debris Flow and Precipitation From Nantou and Chiayi County in Taiwan
Chun-Yu Lin; Kuei-Hsiang Cheng. 2019. Transactions on Science and Technology, 6(4), 340 - 351
Abstract This study collected data on debris flow and precipitation from Nantou and Chiayi districts in Taiwan. According to past reports of debris flow by the Bureau of Water Conservation, there have been 19 debris flow in the Nantou area and 14 debris flow in the Chiayi area for a total of 33 reports of debris flow. Among them, 8 (42%) of the Nantou debris flow were classified potential debris flow torrents, and 11 were ordinary unclassified torrents. There were 8 events of potential debris flow torrents (57%) in the Chiayi area, and 6 ordinary unnamed torrents. According to the hydrological data from the disaster report, precipitation patterns were analyzed using effective accumulated precipitation (R), the duration of sustained precipitation, the duration of alert level precipitation, and the precipitation intensity (I) during debris flow. The precipitation patterns were analyzed using level 1 and level 2 graphs, and findings showed that there are 6 different types of precipitation patterns during debris flow. The results showed that the most significant precipitation patterns were: level 1 short-duration heavy precipitation and level 2 short-duration heavy precipitation, as short duration heavy precipitation occurred 17 times and accounted for 52%. This is in line with the current extreme climate, as short-duration torrential rain can cause disasters. The lesser-occurring mild precipitation is divided into two types: level 1 long-duration mild precipitation and level 2 short-duration long-duration mild precipitations. They occurred 2 times and accounted for 6%. A disaster prevention mechanism should be established in the future to prevent the occurrence of debris flow caused by heavy precipitation. View article

Short Report

Viewable Wildlife Species along Sungai Haji Kuning in Sebatik Island, Sabah
Wing-Shen Lim; Nurliza Binti Hasmat; Andy Russel Mojiol. 2019. Transactions on Science and Technology, 6(4), 352 - 356
Abstract Preliminary assessment was conducted to determine wildlife species that could be sighted along Sungai Haji Kuning in Sebatik Island. Opportunistic sampling was conducted along Sungai Haji Kuning at August 6, 2018, through boat survey. Nine wildlife species were encountered within midstream and downstream regions, in which Long-tailed Macaque was encountered most frequently, followed by Brahminy Kite and the endangered Proboscis Monkey. The near-threatened Oriental Darter, vulnerable Bearded Pig and migratory Chinese Egret were viewable along this river as well. Shannon and Simpson Diversity Indices obtained in present study indicated that this riverine habitat housed rich and evenly-distributed wildlife diversity. Hence, riverine mangrove of Sungai Haji Kuning is important to the survival of both resident and migratory wildlife species, and then high viewing success of proboscis monkey for a long duration further emphasizes its potential for future river-cruising wildlife-watching opportunity. View article


A Mini Review: Interaction of Graphene Oxide with Wharton’s Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Yusoff Umul Hanim; Perng Yang Puah; Ping Chin Lee; Peik Lin Teoh; Siew Eng How. 2019. Transactions on Science and Technology, 6(4), 357 - 365
Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold a great promise for tissue regeneration due to the ease in isolation, expanded capability, high plasticity, wide multi-lineage potential with attractive immunosuppressive properties and transplanted applicability. MSCs therapy relies on a large quantity of stem cells from derivative sources. The study of human Wharton’s Jelly MSCs (hWJMSCs) from umbilical cord matrix has brighten the field of MSCs with the advantage of its availability, ethically free, easily harvested, non-invasive and accessible resources. Biomaterials such as Graphene Oxide (GO) can further enhance the yield of hWJMSCs while sustaining the proliferation potential, multi-potency and phenotype of the cells in vitro with potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The purpose of this mini review is to specify the unique properties of hWJMSCs and GO functionalization and the characterizations of hWJMSCs-GO cell-material interactions including morphology, proliferation, differentiation, and phenotype. View article

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