Volume 5, Issue No 4, December 2018

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Issues in Volume 5
I No 1 II No 2 II No 3 II No 4 (this issue) I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

Full Articles

Estimation of Rainfall Intensity From First Observation Weather Radar Reflectivity Data Over Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia
Megbar W. Birhan;U. Jaya Prakasha Raju; Samuel T. Kenea. 2018. Transactions on Science and Technology, 5(4), 223 - 232
Abstract Weather radar has been to measure reflectivity power from precipitation. It is suitable to cover large area. Bahir Dar weather radar is installed at Washera in the north west of Ethiopia for the first time. Ground-based weather radar precipitation observation is helpful to estimate the reflectivity (Z) and rain rate (R) relations. In Ethiopia, a large study has been conducted on precipitation using rain gauge network data. Gauge precipitation data are not available at a required temporal and spatial distribution over Upper Blue Nile Basin (UBNB), Ethiopia because of insufficient network and density of rain gauges. Most importantly, we do not know the amount of rainfall on the Lake Tana body in Bahir Dar city. Accurate and precise measurements of rainfall from weather radar are essential to supplement the limited characterization of spatial and temporal gauge measurements. But in the case of UBNB, Ethiopia none reported using radar data because of non availability of radar instrument before in 2016. Therefore, for the first time we attempted the estimation of precipitation from weather radar reflectivity data by developing Z-R relation empirical model. For developing Z-R relation model, hourly and daily reflectivity and rain rate data obtained from Bahir Dar weather radar and Bahir Dar gauge station. From our observation the value of the parameters ‘a’ and ‘b’ are found to be 50 and 1.02 respectively. The range of R from empirical Z-R relation is varied from 5.4 to 23.5 mm. Similarly, from the gauge direct observation varied from 4.2 to 22.6 mm. The error deviation of R between the gauge observation and the Z-R relation model are varied from -12.9% to 12.5%. In general, to estimate rainfall data from weather radar reflectivity is quite useful to supplement the irregular and sparse distributions of gauge station in developing countries, such as UBNB, Ethiopia. Hence, the outcomes from this study will be considered for future configuration and calibration of the radar system in Ethiopia. View article

A Laboratory Practicum on Screening for Lytic Bacteriophages from Soil Samples
Hasina Mohammed Mkwata; Armstrong Ighodalo Omoregie; Izzatie binti Musa; Jacynthia Suyuh; Phung Hui Yie; Ling Wen Sin; Lee Tung Tan; Peter Morin Nissom. 2018. Transactions on Science and Technology, 5(4), 233 - 238
Abstract Bacteriophages are viruses that explicitly infect and lyse bacteria. They are ubiquitous and play vital roles in various biotechnological applications such as phage-based bacterial detection and bacteriophage therapy. This paper describes a simple bacteriophage screening protocol for teaching in secondary and tertiary institutions. This laboratory practicum was designed to enable students explore the presence of bacteriophages from soil samples. The tendency of many bacteriophages to produce plaques that are small or excessively turbid on agar plates limits their proper visualisation and enumeration. One percent of TTC (2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride) was incorporated during the pour plate technique to enhance visibility of bacteriophage plaques on Petri dishes. The isolated bacteriophages were then amplified in growth medium containing targeted bacterial hosts. The results showed presence of six bacteriophages with distinctive plaque morphologies. Students were then taken through bacteriophage amplification and storage procedures. A survey was conducted to evaluate student’s learning experience both prior and after laboratory classes. Analysis from the survey showed that only 26% of students attempted all questions from the pre-laboratory bacteriophage practicum questionnaire whereas 74% failed the survey. On the other hand, 53% of the students attempted all questions for the post-laboratory phage practicum questionnaire and 16% failed the survey. View article

Alternative Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum with Waste Polyethylene
Ibrahim Bilici. 2018. Transactions on Science and Technology, 5(4), 239 - 244
Abstract Increasing environmental awareness, concerns and raw material cost has brought up the efficient usage of natural reserves. Synthetic gypsum is one of the mass product wastes from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) process to avoid industrial stack emission of SO2. Coal power plants are especially the largest human-caused source of sulfur dioxide. The adsorption of SO2 via caustic lime [Ca(OH)2] produces a final product called synthetic gypsum. On the other hand, polyethylene is one of the most post-consumer plastics in the world and could be used instead of virgin polyethylene. In this study, recycled post-consumer plastics were used as binder and FGD waste was used as filler material for the aluminum composite panels. The plastic material was analyzed for non-challenge inspection via FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy -Thermo Scientific / Nicolet IS50) and DSC (Differantial Scanning Calorimetry- Mettler – Toledo / DSC 1 / 700). Recycled polymer and gypsum were mixed via Brabender / W50 EHT + Plastograph EC Plus and prepared by proper type mould with Haake mini injection molding. Fusion time, stability and total torque were recorded during the process. Shore hardness of composite was also measured using Mitutoyo 332 hardmatic hardness tester according to ASTM D2240. Finally, the morphological analysis via FEI / Quanta 450 FEG Scanning Electron Microscopy shows that FGD waste and plastic waste are useful as filler material especially for aluminum composite panel. View article

Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation Via Ureolysis Process: A Mini-Review
Armstrong Ighodalo Omoregie; Runnie Henry Ginjom; Peter Morin Nissom. 2018. Transactions on Science and Technology, 5(4), 245 - 256
Abstract Microbially induced carbonate precipitation is a relatively new technology that uses biocementation treatment method for the improvement of soils. This process which relies on microbial and chemical reactions to produce biominerals, has drawn the interest of scientists, engineers and entrepreneurs. MICP can be employed for numerous biotechnological and engineering applications. Biocementation is often used as an alternative to conventional chemical treatment techniques (i.e. lime, asphalt, sodium silicate, and cement) for soil enhancement or embarkment. This eco-friendly and energy saving method binds soil particles together at ambient temperature through biominerals (such a calcium carbonate), thereby leading to enhanced strength and stiffness soils. In this review, the fundamentals of MICP, its metabolic processes and its applications are discussed. The challenges facing this technology and recently reported attempts to solve the problems are also discussed. View article

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