Assessment of Haemoglobin Genotype Variants in Malaria Infected Patients of Two Government Hospitals in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria

Njila Livinus Hasley; Grace S. Onyike; Akwashiki Ombugadu.

Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(1), 1 - 13.

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Genetic factors play a key role in determining resistance and susceptibility to malaria infection. Therefore, a study to assess haemoglobin genotype variants in malaria infected patients of the General Outdoor Patients Departments (GOPD) of Jos University Teaching Hospital and Plateau State Specialist Hospital, Jos, Plateau State was carried out. Thick and thin film were used for the diagnosis of malaria infection. The genotypes were determined by Standard Operating Procedure for electrophoreses. 745 samples were examined from both hospitals, 246 (33.0%) were diagnosed positive while 499 (67.0%) were negative. There was a significant difference in malaria infection in relation to genotypes. HbAA genotype were the most infected with malaria parasites followed by HbAS genotype and the least was HbSS genotype. There was no significant difference in malaria infection in relation to gender. Females were more infected with malaria parasites compared to males. Malaria infection in relation to age groups and genotypes showed a significant difference. Age group 16 to 20 and ≥46 had the highest infection rate. There was a significant difference in trophozoite stage in relation to genotypes. Out of 246 infected patients, 244 (99.2%) were diagnosed at the trophozoite stage, while 2 (0.81%) with the gametocyte stage. There was a significant difference in malaria infection in relation to Plasmodium species. 245 (99.56%) were infected with Plasmodium falciparum while 1 (0.41%) were infected with P. malariae. There was a significant difference in P. falciparum infection in relation to genotypes. P. falciparum infected more HbAA compared to HbAS and HbSS. This study shows that all haemoglobin genotype variants were susceptible to malaria infection. Therefore, there is a need for government to use media to broadcast the importance of haemoglobin genotype test for each and every individual and make it free for effective treatment of malaria infection.

KEYWORDS: Haemoglobin; Genotype; Malaria; Anopheles mosquito; Patients.

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