Volume 7, Issue No 2, June 2020

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Issues in Volume 7
I No 1 II No 2 (this issue) I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

Original Articles

Monthly and Annual Variation of Temperature in Urban Habitats of the Bengaluru Region, India
Somashekara Rajashekara. 2020. Transactions on Science and Technology, 7(2), 29 - 34.
Abstract An examination has been carried out to govern the daily, monthly and annual temperature variations in urban habitats of the Bengaluru region, India for the period 2007-2015. Spatial pattern of temperature showed the increase in monthly and annual variation in the Bengaluru region. Mean maximum temperature was found to be the highest in the month of April (32.65-35.34 °C), whereas mean minimum temperature was found to be the lowest in the month of January (15.27-17.11 °C). A linear relationship between the minimum (Y) and maximum temperatures (X) was established in the form of equation as y = 0.6581x + 0.0674; R² = 0.2625. The findings of the study are reliable with the results obtained by other parts of Indian subcontinent and the remaining parts of the world. Thus, climate change will rigorously influence the Indian monsoon in terms of generating more tolerances which may have impact on the biodiversity of flora and fauna.
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Used Industrial Oil Recycling Using Acid with Low Cost Adsorbents
S M Anisuzzaman; Duduku Krishnaiah; Sariah Abang; Marianah Taib. 2020. Transactions on Science and Technology, 7(2), 35 - 43.
Abstract The main objective of this research is to study the potential properties of used industrial oil (UIO) using acid-clay treatment method. Acid treatment was done using glacial acetic acid followed by clay treatment using activated carbon (AC) or treated river sand (TRS). This study showed that a correlation of acid volume to the sludge formation in UIO. For hydraulic oil (HO) and automatic transmission fluid (ATF), it can be seen that the used HO results in a higher mass of wet and dry sludge formed as compared to the EO and ATF. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that soot, oxidation and sulfation in ATF became undetected after the treatment. Initially, oxidation and sulfation peaks were detected by the presence of a sharp peak around 2173 cm-1 and 1717 cm-1 for ATF samples, while for HO samples, the treatment method was only able to reduce the soot content to an undetectable level. In recycled EO samples, both soot and oxidation problems were resolved. This study also proved that the theory of using TRS as an alternative low cost adsorbent can be an alternative adsorbent although the UIO treated with AC showed better result.
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Public perception of fish massage impact at the ‘Tagal’ areas in Sabah
Kaede Chan Lip Chung; Andy Russel Mojiol. Transactions on Science and Technology, 7(2), 44 - 49.
Abstract The “Tagal system” is a traditional water conservation that prohibits fishing activities in the river for a predetermined time. The initiation of this system is to sustain the inland river resources, restoration of polluted river and generate income for the inhabitants. Furthermore, the ‘Tagal’ system is evolved into ecotourism activities such as fish massage which is beneficial to the inhabitants. However, the hygiene and management of fish massage becomes an issue for the users. Surveys were conducted at two Tagal areas namely ‘Tagal’ Luanti Moroli River, Ranau, and ‘Tagal’ Kiulu, Tamparuli. Result from the surveys have shown that the majority agreed fish massages are beneficial activities and would be safe to be conducted at ‘Tagal’ area. The majority also agreed to participate in the ‘Tagal’ conservation because it promotes good sustainable management for the inland river. Moreover, Willingness to Pay (WTP) would be a good management practice for the inhabitantsbut the linear regression model shows that only marital status, level of education, occupation, and distance variables were correlated with WTP. Further investigation is necessary in this field of study in the future.
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Impacts of Associated Fauna on Seagrass During The Conditioning Period In Husbandry Tanks: Gaya Island, Sabah, Malaysia Case Study
Tzuen Kiat Yap; Ejria Saleh; John Barry Gallagher. Transactions on Science and Technology, 7(2), 50 - 57.
Abstract Sustainability of seagrass restoration raised concern especially limitation and condition of donor seagrass meadows. To counter this, “gardening” approach can be applied by growing seagrass shoots asexually and sexually in a nursery facility. This study was carried out to identify the fauna species associated with seagrass in the husbandry tanks at Marine Ecology Research Centre (MERC), Gaya Island, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Associated fauna was identified to the lowest taxa, while their behaviour and potential impacts on seagrass growth were recorded weekly for 9 months (April 2016 to December 2016). Bite marks on the seagrass leaves were reconfirmed through isolation of fauna with seagrass leaves. Total of 18 species of fauna identified, mostly were mesograzers foraging on seagrass or epiphytic algae. Those are polychaeta, grammarid amphipod, sphaeromatid isopod, sea hares, nerites snails and greenspine sea urchin which left specific bite marks on the seagrass leaves. Also, there is discovery of boring bivalve residing inside the rhizome of the seagrass. Quarantine protocol should implement in the future nursery facility, by removing harmful organisms and introduce beneficial organisms as biological control, to ensure higher survival and growth of seagrass.
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Comparison of Cow’s Breed on the Morphology of Ovaries Collected from Abattoir
Nur Farah Atiqah Yahya; Nur Hardy Abu Daud; Punimin Abdullah; Mobarak Aktar Md. Yahia Khandoker. Transactions on Science and Technology, 7(2), 58 - 63.
Abstract In vitro production (IVP) of embryos is one of the popular animal reproductive biotechnologies to enhance the genetic improvement of livestock. However, insufficiency of good quality oocytes has become one of the major constraints in producing embryos from IVP. Thus, a preliminary evaluation of ovaries could provides information for further experiment regarding IVP of cattle embryos. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the morphology of ovaries from different breed of cattle, including surface follicles and follicular health status. Thirty two (32) ovaries from Kedah-Kelantan breed and 32 ovaries from crossbred cows were collected from an abattoir in Taiping, Perak. Follicles visible on the surface of each ovary were counted and the weight, length and width of the ovaries were measured. The ovaries were then fixed and processed for microscopic evaluation, where the number of healthy and atretic follicles were counted. The mean ovarian weight, length, width and number of surface visible ovarian follicles of crossbred cows were found significantly higher (7.81 ± 0.61 g, 3.30 ± 0.09 cm, 2.31 ± 0.07 cm and 29.66 ± 2.32, respectively) compared to Kedah-Kelantan cows (3.22 ± 0.33 g, 2.60 ± 0.08 cm, 1.80 ± 0.07 cm and 20.97 ± 2.04, respectively). The mean percentage of healthy follicles in the ovaries of Kedah-Kelantan and crossbred did not differ significantly (41.12 ± 5.24 and 48.61 ± 10.15, respectively). In conclusion, breed of cows had statistically significant influence on the surface follicles, but not significant in follicular health status. Further research study of breed factor on oocytes are required for successful IVP of cattle embryos.
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Review Article

Reviewing Seadornaviruses: The Next Dengue?
Avinash Rames. Transactions on Science and Technology, 7(2), 64 - 79.
Abstract Seadornaviruses are lesser known emerging arboviral pathogens that have a wide geographic range as their members have been isolated or detected in Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. The genus has multiple members but Banna Virus (BAV) and Liao Ning virus (LNV) are of particular interest due to their pathogenic and virulent nature. At a glance, their disease causing capacity may pale in comparison to Dengue virus, Japanese Encephalitis virus, Zika virus and others along those lines but this capacity could increase significantly in the future as Seadornaviruses may have only recently began adapting to the vector/human transmission cycle. The type species of the genus, BAV causes a myriad of symptoms upon infection while LNV, another member shows wide tissue tropism in vitro and causes fatality upon reinfection in vivo. Additionally, it is possible that infection by Seadornaviruses may lead to long term sequelae. Cumulatively, the data suggests that BAV and LNV and possibly other members may be highly successful arboviral pathogens. Due to paucity of knowledge pertaining their clinical significance, research has stalled and consequently viruses of the genera are poorly characterized. The current review of Seadornaviruses aims to provide an update on the literature related to them in addition to raising awareness about them and their potential clinical significance. Similarly, discussions are performed throughout the manuscript to highlight future research directions.
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