Archives

Volume 1, Issue No 1, December 2014

I Next Volume>>

Issues in Volume 1
I No 1 (this issue) I

Cover Page and Table of Contents

Full Articles

Sensitivity analysis of the detection of Ganoderma boninense infection in oil palm using FTIR
Arnnyitte Alexander; Coswald Stephen Sipaut; Khim-Phin Chong; Ping-Chin Lee; Jedol Dayou. 2014. Transactions on Science and Technology, 1(1), 1 - 6
Abstract One of the main issues in oil palm plantation is the infection of Ganoderma boninense causing basal stem rot disease. Huge monetary losses were reported in the industry by the main producer countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. Many efforts have been carried out to detect the fungus at the early stage of infection with less practical achievement so far. Recently, detection of the pathogenic fungi using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) has been investigated by the authors. This paper examines the sensitivity of the detection method and correlates the results with the practicality in field scenario. It was found that percentage content of G. boninense cells in oil palm tissues of 5% is detectable using FTIR technique. The results presented in this study indicated that FTIR could be a solution to early detection of G. boninense infection in oil palm especially if the instrument can be made portable and robust for field application. View article

Chitin-Binding Mistletoe Lectin (MChbL) Exhibits Entomotoxic and Cytotoxic Properties
Eka Khurtsidze; Nino Keburia; Mariam Gaidamashvili. 2014. Transactions on Science and Technology, 1(1), 7 - 17
Abstract Apamea sordens Hufn. and Agrotis segetum Schiff. are serious herbivore Lepidoptera pests on various agricultural crops causing substantial crop losses throughout the world. They are responsible also for significant damage of stored seeds and post-harvest loss of agricultural production. Plant agglutinins (lectins) as natural plant defense agents, have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects and are promising candidates for biological pesticides. The insecticidal activity of Viscum album chitin-binding lectin (MChbL) against Apamea sordens Hufn. and Agrotis segetum Schiff. larvae was investigated. MChbL exhibited proteinase inhibitory and chitinase activities and affected larval development and survival at different growth stages. The rate of adults successfully emerging from pupae fed on MChbL was from 5% to 33%, when incorporated into an artificial diet at a level of 0.01% (w/w). MChbL decreased larval total midgut protease activity by 60% at a concentration of 0.25 μg/μl. Toxic properties of chitin-binding mistletoe lectin (MChbL) against Lepidoptera pests and human peripheral blood lymphocytes have been investigated. High concentrations of MChbL exhibit cytotoxic properties. Lectin was no cytotoxic to human peripheral blood cells at the concentrations of 10 µg/ml and exhibited similar results as ConA at sub-mitogenic concentration. In short term feeding trials MChbL did not retarded animal mass growth and did not affected overall conditions of male or on female animal groups at the concentrations up to 0.1% (w/w). N-terminal amino acid sequencing of MChbL showed homology to plant pathogenesis-related (PR) protein families with 60% homology. MChbL could be useful in the development entomotoxic biopecticides for the control of Lepidoptera pests at dose-dependent manner. View article

Agent Architecture: An Overview
Kim On Chin; Kim Soon Gan; Rayner Alfred; Patricia Anthony; Dickson Lukose. 2014. Transactions on Science and Technology, 1(1), 18 - 35
Abstract Agent architecture has been one of the core components in building an agent application. Agent architecture is considered as the functional brain of an agent in making decision and reasoning to solve problem and achieving goals. This paper reviews some of the existing agent architectures such as logic-based architecture, reactive architecture, BDI architecture, hybrid architecture, cognitive architecture, and semantic architecture. The purpose of this study is to identify distinctive features of the different types of agent architectures and how they are implemented to solve real world problems. View article

Evaluation of Microbial Contamination on Contact Lenses among University Students
Ping-Chin Lee; Eric Tzyy Jiann Chong; Salehah Abu Nor. 2014. Transactions on Science and Technology, 1(1), 36 - 42
Abstract Agent architecture has been one of the core components in building an agent application. Agent architecture is considered as the functional brain of an agent in making decision and reasoning to solve problem and achieving goals. This paper reviews some of the existing agent architectures such as logic-based architecture, reactive architecture, BDI architecture, hybrid architecture, cognitive architecture, and semantic architecture. The purpose of this study is to identify distinctive features of the different types of agent architectures and how they are implemented to solve real world problems. View article

Effect of Phenolic Acids to Ganoderma Viability in Oil Palm Tissues and Soil
Wei-Ren Jee; Khim-Phin Chong. 2014. Transactions on Science and Technology, 1(1), 43 - 49
Abstract This paper presents the potential of phenolic acids; caffeic acid (CA), syringic acid (SA) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) in Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease suppression of oil palm. Four concentrations of phenolics combinations were tested which were 0.4 g a.i., 0.8 g a.i., 1.2 g a.i. and 1.6 g a.i. of each CA, SA and 4-HBA. Infected palms with similar BSR disease intensity, age, soil topography and condition were selected for this trial. Assessment on Ganoderma viability was based on ergosterol content, possible isolation of the fungus on Ganoderma Selective Medium (GSM) from treated palm and Colony Forming of Ganoderma on GSM from treated soil. No ergosterol was found in healthy palms but in contrast ergosterol was detected in infected oil palm tissues before and after the treatments of phenolic acids. However, the untreated and infected palms showed significantly higher mean difference of ergosterol (0.6395 µg g-1) compared to infected palms but treated with phenolic acids. Combinations of phenolics with 1.6 g a.i. suppressed Ganoderma colonization the most (-0.4379 µg g-1 of ergosterol), though, the suppression was no significant in comparison to other treatments such as 0.4 g a.i., 0.8 g a.i. and 1.2 g a.i.. Ganoderma was isolated on GSM from all oil palm tissues either treated or untreated with the phenolics acids suggesting the pathogen was suppressed but not killed after treated. However, there was no colony of G. boninense form on the GSM from the soil samples collected after observation for one month. View article





UniSE Press