Prophylactic activity of ethanolic leaf extract from Hyptis suaveolens (bush mint) in Plasmodium berghei infected Swiss albino mice

Vitus C. Ezuluebo; Victoria A. Pam; Akwashiki Ombugadu; Ndubisi R. Uzoigwe.

Transactions on Science and Technology, 9(4), 194 - 203.

Back to main issue

The development of novel drugs is one of the necessities required to help halt the burden caused by malaria parasite. Thus, the in vivo study on the prophylactic activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Hyptis suaveolens in Plasmodium berghei infected Swiss albino mice was investigated. Oral toxicity of the plant extract was first established before the experiment. Also, the mean change in haematological parameters and body weight were determined. The prophylactic test result showed a dose-dependent efficacy of the plant extract on the parasitemia. The group treated with ACT had the least parasitemia while the negative control recorded the highest parasitemia. Thus, the mean parasitemia in relation to the various treatments varied significantly (P ˂ 0.05). However, there was no significant difference (P ˃ 0.05) in the mean change in Hb, RBC, PCV and mean change in body weight respectively. In conclusion, the result obtained suggests that the ethanolic leaf extract of H. suaveolens possesses a dose-dependent prophylactic antiplasmodial activity. This supports the traditional usage of H. suaveolens for the treatment of malaria.

KEYWORDS: Just walk-in outpatients, HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Haematological parameter, Metropolitan city of Lafia

Download this PDF file

  1. Aliyu, A. A., Ombugadu, A., Ezuluebo, V. C., Ahmed, H. O., Ashigar, A. M., Ayuba, S. O., Aimankhu, O. P., Maikenti, J. I., Odey, S. A., Pam, V. A., Uzoigwe, N. R. & Osuagwu, O. S. 2022. Insecticidal activity of crude extract of Hyptis suaveolens (Bush Mint) on Anopheles Mosquitoes collected from Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. Journal of Zoological Research, 4 (3). DOI:
  2. Al-Salahy, M., Shnawa, B., Abed, G., Mandour, A. & Al-Ezzi, A. 2016. Parasitemia and its relation to Hematological parameters and liver function among patients Malaria in Abs, Hajjah, Northwest Yemen. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Disease, 2016, Article ID 5954394. DOI:
  3. Ayim, J. O., Pam, V. A., Uzoigwe, N. R., Omalu, I. C. J., Ombugadu, A., Ameh, S. F., Anyebe, G. E., Abe, E. M., Tanko, N. S., Ahmed, H. O., Aimankhu, P. O., Maikenti, J. I., Ayim, T. P., Terna, A. D., Okeke, P., Aliyu, A. A., Ayuba, S. O., Odey, S. A., Adejoh, V. A., Yina, G. I. & Dawam, N. N. 2021. The Antiplasmodial Activities of Bufonidae (Toad) Venom Crude Extract on Plasmodium berghei in Swiss Albino Mice. Open Access Journal of Biogeneric Science & Research, 8(1), 7-12.
  4. Bassey, A. S., Okokon, J. E., Etim, E. I., Umoh, F. U. & Bassey, E. 2009. Evaluation of the in vivo antimalarial activity of ethanolic leaf and stembark extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 41(6), 258-261.
  5. Bhattacharjee, D. & Shivaprakash, G. 2016. Drug resistance in malaria-in a nutshell. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 6(3), 137-143.
  6. Cheesbrough, M. 2004. District Laboratory Practice in tropical Countries (Part 2) (2nd edition). United Kingdom: University Press, Cambridge. Pp. 266-342.
  7. Christensen, S. B. & Kharazmi, A. 2001. Antimalarial natural products. Isolation, characterization and biological properties. In: Tringali, C. (Ed.). Bioactive compounds from natural sources: Isolation, characterization and biological properties. London: Taylor and Francis, Abingdon-on-Thames. Pp 379-432.
  8. Dawet, A., Anyanwu, I. G., Dede, M. P., Uzoigwe, N. R. & Onyekwelu, N. A. 2012. In vivo antimalarial activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Hyptis suaveolens poit on Plasmodium berghei in Mice. International Journal of Biology and Chemical Science, 6(1), 117-127.
  9. Duru, V., Witkowski, B. & Menard, D. 2016. Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives and piperaquine: a major challenge for malaria elimination in Cambodia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 95(6), 1228-1238.
  10. Harborne, J. B. 1998. Phytochemical methods a guide to modern technique of plant analysis (3rd edition). New York: Chapman and Hall. Pp. 88-185.
  11. Lorke, D. 1983. A new approach for acute toxicity testing acute. Toxicity, 54, 275-287.
  12. Muregi, F. W., Ishih, A., Miyase, T., Suzuki, T., Kino, H., Amano, T., Mkoji, G. M. & Terada, M. 2007. Antimalarial activity of methanolic extracts from plants used in Kenyan ethno medicine and their interactions with chloroquine (CQ) against a CQ-tolerant rodent parasite, in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 111(1), 190-195.
  13. Ntie-Kang, F., Onguéné, P. A., Lifongo, L. L., Ndom, J. C., Sippl, W. & Mbaze, L. M. 2014. The potential of anti-malarial compounds derived from African medicinal plants, part II: a pharmacological evaluation of non-alkaloids and non-terpenoids. Malaria Journal, 13(1), 11-16.
  14. Odetola, A. & Basir, O. 1980. Evaluation of antimalarial properties of some Nigerian medicinal plants. In: Sofowora, A. (Ed.) Book of Proceeding of African Bioscience Network. IFE: Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, Nigerian Society of Pharmacology and Drug Research and Production Unit. University of Ife Organized Workshop. Pp. 275–283.
  15. Odugbemi, T. O., Akinsulire, O. R., Aibinu, I. E. & Fabeku, P. O. 2006. Medicinal plants
  16. useful for malaria therapy in Okeigbo, Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines, 4(2), 191–198.
  17. Okochi, V. I., Gbenie, G. O., Kazeem, A. A., Fagbenro-Beyloku, A. F., Igbodudu, H. E. & Arukwe U. 1999. Effect of water extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Aidon) on haematological and biochemical parameters in Rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine, 9(1), 66-70.
  18. Okokon, J. E., Bassey, S. A., Mohanakrishnan, D. & Sahal, D. 2017. Antimalarial and antiplasmodial activity of husk extract and fractions of Zea mays. Journal of Pharmaceutical Biology, 55(1), 1394-1400.
  19. Omulokoli, E., Khan, B. & Chhabra, S. C. 1997. Antiplasmodial activity of four Kenyan medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 56, 133-137.
  20. Peters, W. 1965. Drug Resistance in Plasmodium berghei Vincke and Lips, 1948. I. Chloroquine resistance. Journal of Experimental Parasitology, 17, 80–89.
  21. Husein, A. H., Alhasan, D. A. H. & Albadry, M. A. Z. 2019. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity and GC-MS Analysis of Crude Aqueous Methanolic Extract Produced from Leaves of Eucalyptus species. Thi-Qar Medical Journal, 17(1), 57-64.
  22. White, N. J. 2018. Anaemia and malaria. Malaria Journal, 17(1), 371.
  23. WHO (World Health Organization). 2020. WHO key facts on malaria 2020. ( Last accesssed on 8 January 2022.
  24. WHO (World Health Organization). 2020. WHO Guidelines for malaria 2022. ( Last accesssed on 8 January 2022.
  25. Zemicheal, G. & Mekonnen, Y. 2018. Antiplasmodial activity of Vernonia adoensis aqueous, methanol and chloroform leaf extracts against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei in vivo in mice. BMC Research Notes, 11(1), 736.