Evaluation of the DDT and Pyrethroid Resistance Status of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kota Bharu, Kelantan

Azlinda Abu Bakar; Amani Ahmad Mokhtar; Tuan Nur Akmalina Mat Jusoh; Rafidah Hanim Shueb.

Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(3), 128 - 136.

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The emergence of resistance in vector mosquitoes such as Aedes, mainly against pyrethroids group of insecticide, has become a serious threat to vector control management in public health services. This study aims to investigate the susceptibility/resistance status of the dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin and the presence of F1534C and V1016G knockdown (kdr) alleles mutations in Aedes aegypti populations in Kota Bharu Kelantan Malaysia. The long-lasting resistant effects of DDT against Ae. aegypti is evaluated. The F1 adults' of Ae. aegypti were collected from Kota Bharu and assayed to the WHO susceptibility test with 4% DDT, 0.05% lambda-cyhalothrin, and 0.75% permethrin. Mortality percentage, knockdown time KT50, and resistance ratio RR values were calculated for susceptibility analysis. All the mosquito survivors from the assay were kept in -80 °C and subjected to the Allele Specific-Polymerase Chain Reaction (AS-PCR) analysis on the presence of kdr mutation F1534C and V1016G. Results obtained from the assay show Ae. aegypti was resistant phenotypically against type I and type II pyrethroids viz permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. AS-PCR analysis however showed a resistance genotypically against pyrethroid type I only. The RR values for all insecticides tested were more than 10, which indicate resistance. The kdr mutation alleles frequencies of 1/3 F/C1534 and 2/3 C/C1534 were detected in Ae. aegypti population.

KEYWORDS: Aedes aegypti, DDT-pyrethroid, kdr alleles, F1534C, V1016G.

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