COVID-19: Reviewing Risk Factors and Breaking Transmission

Avinash Rames

Transactions on Science and Technology, 8(1), 45 - 84.

Back to main issue

SARS-CoV-2, a member of the Betacoronavirus genera and causative agent of COVID-19 will go down in history as one of the most successful pathogens in recent times. COVID-19 was declared a pandemic on 11th of March 2020, and it is disturbing that only vaccines are available hitherto despite it being around for more than a year. Traditional virology attempts to explain events via host-pathogen interactions, yet it does not take into account of the multifarious factors that may alter odds for disease development. In line with this paucity, a literature review was performed to identify risk factors for developing severe COVID-19 from behavioural, demographical, environmental, genetic and physiological perspectives. Risk factors for disease are discussed by focusing on the receptors of SARS-CoV-2 which would be ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in addition to elaborating on multiple phenomena. An elaborate discourse is also performed to identify steps that can be taken to stymie or ideally break the chain of COVID-19 transmission in addition to discussing on what one should do after being confirmed or suspected as being COVID-19 positive.

KEYWORDS: Anti-vaxxers and COVID-19, COVID-19 risk factors, Factors affecting ACE2, Factors affecting TMPRSS2, Stopping COVID-19 transmission.

Download this PDF file

  1. Abdelrahman, Z., Li, M. & Wang, X. 2020. Comparative Review of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and Influenza A Respiratory Viruses. Frontiers in Immunology, 11, 2309.
  2. Abuelgasim, E., Saw, L.J., Shirke, M., Zeinah, M. & Harky, A. 2020. COVID-19: Unique public health issues facing Black, Asian and minority ethnic communities. Current Probems in Cardiology, 100621.
  3. Adedokun, K.A., Olarinmoye, A.O., Mustapha, J.O. & Kamorudeen, R.T. 2020. A close look at the biology of SARS-CoV-2, and the potential influence of weather conditions and seasons on COVID-19 case spread. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9(1), 77.
  4. Ahmadi, M., Sharifi, A., Dorosti, S., Jafarzadeh Ghoushchi, S. & Ghanbari, N. 2020. Investigation of effective climatology parameters on COVID-19 outbreak in Iran. The Science of the total environment, 729, 138705.
  5. Ajelli, M., Poletti, P., Melegaro, A. & Merler, S. 2014. The role of different social contexts in shaping influenza transmission during the 2009 pandemic. Scientific Reports, 4(1), 7218.
  6. Al-Mulla, F., Mohammad, A., Madhoun, A. Al, Haddad, D., Ali, H., Eaaswarkhanth, M., John, S.E., Nizam, R., Channanath, A., Abu-Farha, M., Ahmad, R., Abubaker, J. & Thanaraj, T.A. 2020. A comprehensive germline variant and expression analyses of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and SARS-CoV-2 activator FURIN genes from the Middle East: Combating SARS-CoV-2 with precision medicine. bioRxiv, 2020.05.16.099176.
  7. Alatoom, A. & Payne, D. 2009. An Overview of Arboviruses and Bunyaviruses. Laboratory Medicine, 40(4), 237–240.
  8. Aldridge, R.W., Lewer, D., Katikireddi, S. V, Mathur, R., Pathak, N., Burns, R., Fragaszy, E.B., Johnson, A.M., Devakumar, D., Abubakar, I. & Hayward, A. 2020. Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic groups in England are at increased risk of death from COVID-19: indirect standardisation of NHS mortality data. Wellcome Open Research, 5(88).
  9. Alexander, M.R., Schoeder, C.T., Brown, J.A., Smart, C.D., Moth, C., Wikswo, J.P., Capra, J.A., Meiler, J., Chen, W. & Madhur, M.S. 2020. Which animals are at risk? Predicting species susceptibility to Covid-19. bioRxiv, 2020.07.09.194563.
  10. Almeida-Pititto, B. de, Dualib, P.M., Zajdenverg, L., Dantas, J.R., Souza, F.D. de, Rodacki, M., Bertoluci, M.C. & (SBD), B.D.S.S.G. 2020. Severity and mortality of COVID 19 in patients with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, 12(1), 75, 1-12.
  11. Alqahtani, J.S., Oyelade, T., Aldhahir, A.M., Alghamdi, S.M., Almehmadi, M., Alqahtani, A.S., Quaderi, S., Mandal, S. & Hurst, J.R. 2020. Prevalence, Severity and Mortality associated with COPD and Smoking in patients with COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLOS ONE, 15(5), e0233147.
  12. Andersen, K.G., Rambaut, A., Lipkin, W.I., Holmes, E.C. & Garry, R.F. 2020. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nature Medicine, 26(4), 450–452.
  13. Annarita, P., Grassi, T., Donia, D., Donno, A. De, Idolo, A., Alfio, C., Alessandri, C., Alberto, S. & Divizia, M. 2010. Detection and molecular characterization of human rotaviruses isolated in Italy and Albania. Journal of medical virology, 82(3), 510–518.
  14. Arora, J., Pierini, F., McLaren, P.J., Carrington, M., Fellay, J. & Lenz, T.L. 2020. HLA Heterozygote Advantage against HIV-1 Is Driven by Quantitative and Qualitative Differences in HLA Allele-Specific Peptide Presentation. Molecular biology and evolution, 37(3), 639–650.
  15. Ashton, J. 2021. COVID-19 and the anti-vaxxers. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 114(1), 42–43.
  16. Astuti, I. & Ysrafil. 2020. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): An overview of viral structure and host response. Diabetes & metabolic syndrome, 14(4), 407–412.
  17. Auler, A.C., Cássaro, F.A.M., Silva, V.O. da & Pires, L.F. 2020. Evidence that high temperatures and intermediate relative humidity might favor the spread of COVID-19 in tropical climate: A case study for the most affected Brazilian cities. Science of The Total Environment, 729, 139090.
  18. Bagdonaite, I. & Wandall, H.H. 2018. Global aspects of viral glycosylation. Glycobiology, 28(7), 443–467.
  19. Bailey, R.I., Cheng, H.H., Chase-Topping, M., Mays, J.K., Anacleto, O., Dunn, J.R. & Doeschl-Wilson, A. 2020. Pathogen transmission from vaccinated hosts can cause dose-dependent reduction in virulence. PLOS Biology, 18(3), e3000619.
  20. Baker, J.M., Dahl, R.M., Cubilo, J., Parashar, U.D. & Lopman, B.A. 2019. Effects of the rotavirus vaccine program across age groups in the United States: analysis of national claims data, 2001–2016. BMC Infectious Diseases, 19(1), 186.
  21. Baker, M.G., Peckham, T.K. & Seixas, N.S. 2020. Estimating the burden of United States workers exposed to infection or disease: A key factor in containing risk of COVID-19 infection. PLOS ONE, 15(4), e0232452.
  22. Bansal, M. 2020. Cardiovascular disease and COVID-19. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, 14(3), 247–250.
  23. Barrera, F.J., Shekhar, S., Wurth, R., Moreno-Pena, P.J., Ponce, O.J., Hajdenberg, M., Alvarez-Villalobos, N.A., Hall, J.E., Schiffrin, E.L., Eisenhofer, G., Porter, F., Brito, J.P., Bornstein, S.R., Stratakis, C.A., González-González, J.G., Rodíguez-Gutiérrez, R. & Hannah-Shmouni, F. 2020. Prevalence of Diabetes and Hypertension and Their Associated Risks for Poor Outcomes in Covid-19 Patients. Journal of the Endocrine Society, 4(9), bvaa102.
  24. Barrs, V.R., Peiris, M., Tam, K.W.S., Law, P.Y.T., Brackman, C.J., To, E.M.W., Yu, V.Y.T., Chu, D.K.W., Perera, R.A.P.M. & Sit, T.H.C. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 in Quarantined Domestic Cats from COVID-19 Households or Close Contacts, Hong Kong, China. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(12), 3071–3074.
  25. Bashir, M.F., Ma, B., Bilal, Komal, B., Bashir, M.A., Tan, D. & Bashir, M. 2020. Correlation between climate indicators and COVID-19 pandemic in New York, USA. The Science of the total environment, 728, 138835.
  26. BBC News. 2020a. Coronavirus: Trump stands by China lab origin theory for virus ( Last accessed on 24 May 2020.
  27. BBC News. 2020b. India’s new paper Covid-19 test could be a ‘game changer’ - BBC News ( Last accessed on 16 October 2020.
  28. BBC News. 2020c. Coronavirus: Four lions test positive for Covid-19 at Barcelona Zoo ( Last accessed on 8 December 2020.
  29. Beam, A., Goede, D., Fox, A., McCool, M.J., Wall, G., Haley, C. & Morrison, R. 2016. A Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Outbreak in One Geographic Region of the United States: Descriptive Epidemiology and Investigation of the Possibility of Airborne Virus Spread. PLOS ONE, 10(12), e0144818.
  30. Bedford, J., Enria, D., Giesecke, J., Heymann, D.L., Ihekweazu, C., Kobinger, G., Lane, H.C., Memish, Z., Oh, M., Sall, A.A., Schuchat, A., Ungchusak, K. & Wieler, L.H. 2020. COVID-19: towards controlling of a pandemic. The Lancet, 395(10229), 1015–1018.
  31. Belkin, L.Y. & Kouchaki, M. 2017. Too hot to help! Exploring the impact of ambient temperature on helping. European Journal of Social Psychology, 47(5), 525–538.
  32. Benetti, E., Tita, R., Spiga, O., Ciolfi, A., Birolo, G., Bruselles, A., Doddato, G., Giliberti, A., Marconi, C., Musacchia, F., Pippucci, T., Torella, A., Trezza, A., Valentino, F., Baldassarri, M., Brusco, A., Asselta, R., Bruttini, M., Furini, S., Seri, M., Nigro, V., Matullo, G., Tartaglia, M., Mari, F., Frullanti, E., Fallerini, C., Daga, S., Croci, S., Amitrano, S., Fava, F., Montagnani, F., Sarno, L. Di, Tommasi, A., Palmieri, M., Emiliozzi, A., Fabbiani, M., Rossetti, B., Zanelli, G., Bergantini, L., D’Alessandro, M., Cameli, P., Bennet, D., Anedda, F., Marcantonio, S., Scolletta, S., Franchi, F., Mazzei, M.A., Conticini, E., Cantarini, L., Frediani, B., Tacconi, D., Feri, M., Scala, R., Spargi, G., Corridi, M., Nencioni, C., Caldarelli, G.P., Spagnesi, M., Piacentini, P., Bandini, M., Desanctis, E., Canaccini, A., Spertilli, C., Donati, A., Guidelli, L., Croci, L., Verzuri, A., Anemoli, V., Ognibene, A., Vaghi, M., D’Arminio Monforte, A., Merlini, E., Mondelli, M.U., Mantovani, S., Ludovisi, S., Girardis, M., Venturelli, S., Sita, M., Cossarizza, A., Antinori, A., Vergori, A., Rusconi, S., Siano, M., Gabrieli, A., Riva, A., Francisci, D., Schiaroli, E., Scotton, P.G., Andretta, F., Panese, S., Scaggiante, R., Parisi, S.G., Castelli, F., Quiros-Roldan, M.E., Magro, P., Minardi, C., Castelli, D., Polesini, I., Monica, M. Della, Piscopo, C., Capasso, M., Russo, R., Andolfo, I., Iolascon, A., Carella, M., Castori, M., Merla, G., Aucella, F., Raggi, P., Marciano, C., Perna, R., Bassetti, M., Biagio, A. Di, Sanguinetti, M., Masucci, L., Gabbi, C., Valente, S., Guerrini, S., Meloni, I., Mencarelli, M.A., Rizzo, C. Lo, Bargagli, E., Mandalà, M., Giorli, A., Salerni, L., Fiorentino, G., Zucchi, P., Parravicini, P., Menatti, E., Baratti, S., Trotta, T., Giannattasio, F., Coiro, G., Lena, F., Coviello, D.A., Mussini, C., Renieri, A., Pinto, A.M. & Study, G.-C.M. 2020. ACE2 gene variants may underlie interindividual variability and susceptibility to COVID-19 in the Italian population. European Journal of Human Genetics, 28(11), 1602–1614.
  33. Berhane, Y., Suderman, M., Babiuk, S. & Pickering, B. 2020. Susceptibility of turkeys, chickens and chicken embryos to SARS-CoV-2. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, n/a(n/a).
  34. Bhat, T.A., Panzica, L., Kalathil, S.G. & Thanavala, Y. 2015. Immune Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 12(Supplement 2), S169–S175.
  35. Bialek, S., Boundy, E., Bowen, V., Chow, N., Cohn, A., Dowling, N., Ellington, S., Gierke, R., Hall, A., MacNeil, J., Patel, P., Peacock, G., Pilishvili, T., Razzaghi, H., Reed, N., Ritchey, M. & Sauber-Schatz, E. 2020. Severe Outcomes Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) — United States, February 12–March 16, 2020. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(12), 343–346.
  36. Biryukov, J., Boydston, J.A., Dunning, R.A., Yeager, J.J., Wood, S., Reese, A.L., Ferris, A., Miller, D., Weaver, W., Zeitouni, N.E., Phillips, A., Freeburger, D., Hooper, I., Ratnesar-Shumate, S., Yolitz, J., Krause, M., Williams, G., Dawson, D.G., Herzog, A., Dabisch, P., Wahl, V., Hevey, M.C. & Altamura, L.A. 2020. Increasing Temperature and Relative Humidity Accelerates Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 on Surfaces. mSphere, 5(4), e00441-20.
  37. Bizzotto, J., Sanchis, P., Abbate, M., Lage-Vickers, S., Lavignolle, R., Toro, A., Olszevicki, S., Sabater, A., Cascardo, F., Vazquez, E., Cotignola, J. & Gueron, G. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 Infection Boosts MX1 Antiviral Effector in COVID-19 Patients. iScience, 23(10), 101585.
  38. Bleier, B.S., Ramanathan, M. & Lane, A.P. 2020. COVID-19 Vaccines May Not Prevent Nasal SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Asymptomatic Transmission. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, 0194599820982633.
  39. Boodoosingh, R., Olayemi, L.O. & Sam, F.A.-L. 2020. COVID-19 vaccines: Getting Anti-vaxxers involved in the discussion. World development, 136, 105177.
  40. Booth, C.M., Matukas, L.M., Tomlinson, G.A., Rachlis, A.R., Rose, D.B., Dwosh, H.A., Walmsley, S.L., Mazzulli, T., Avendano, M., Derkach, P., Ephtimios, I.E., Kitai, I., Mederski, B.D., Shadowitz, S.B., Gold, W.L., Hawryluck, L.A., Rea, E., Chenkin, J.S., Cescon, D.W., Poutanen, S.M. & Detsky, A.S. 2003. Clinical features and short-term outcomes of 144 patients with SARS in the greater Toronto area. JAMA, 289(21), 2801–2809.
  41. Bos, J.M., Hebl, V.B., Oberg, A.L., Sun, Z., Herman, D.S., Teekakirikul, P., Seidman, J.G., Seidman, C.E., Remedios, C.G. dos, Maleszewski, J.J., Schaff, H. V, Dearani, J.A., Noseworthy, P.A., Friedman, P.A., Ommen, S.R., Brozovich, F. V & Ackerman, M.J. 2020. Marked Up-Regulation of ACE2 in Hearts of Patients with Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Implications for SARS-CoV-2-Mediated COVID-19. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 95(7), 1354–1368.
  42. Bunyavanich, S., Do, A. & Vicencio, A. 2020. Nasal Gene Expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 in Children and Adults. JAMA, 323(23), 2427–2429.
  43. Buonanno, M., Welch, D., Shuryak, I. & Brenner, D.J. 2020. Far-UVC light (222 nm) efficiently and safely inactivates airborne human coronaviruses. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 10285.
  44. Burki, T. 2020. The online anti-vaccine movement in the age of COVID-19. The Lancet Digital Health, 2(10), e504–e505.
  45. Burrell, C.J., Howard, C.R. & Murphy, F.A. 2017. Coronaviruses. Fenner and White’s Medical Virology, 437–446.
  46. Burrell, L.M., Risvanis, J., Kubota, E., Dean, R.G., MacDonald, P.S., Lu, S., Tikellis, C., Grant, S.L., Lew, R.A., Smith, A.I., Cooper, M.E. & Johnston, C.I. 2005. Myocardial infarction increases ACE2 expression in rat and humans. European Heart Journal, 26(4), 369–375.
  47. Byambasuren, O., Cardona, M., Bell, K., Clark, J., McLaws, M.-L. & Glasziou, P. 2020. Estimating the extent of asymptomatic COVID-19 and its potential for community transmission: systematic review and meta-analysis. Official Journal of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, 5(4), 223–234.
  48. Calibeo-Hayes, D., Denning, S.S., Stringham, S.M., Guy, J.S., Smith, L.G. & Watson, D.W. 2003. Mechanical Transmission of Turkey Coronavirus by Domestic Houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeaus). Avian Diseases, 47(1), 149–153.
  49. Cao, Y., Li, L., Feng, Z., Wan, S., Huang, P., Sun, X., Wen, F., Huang, X., Ning, G. & Wang, W. 2020. Comparative genetic analysis of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) receptor ACE2 in different populations. Cell Discovery, 6(1), 1-4.
  50. Carrat, F., Vergu, E., Ferguson, N.M., Lemaitre, M., Cauchemez, S., Leach, S. & Valleron, A.-J. 2008. Time Lines of Infection and Disease in Human Influenza: A Review of Volunteer Challenge Studies. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167(7), 775–785.
  51. Cauchemez, S., Bhattarai, A., Marchbanks, T.L., Fagan, R.P., Ostroff, S., Ferguson, N.M. & Swerdlow, D. 2011. Role of social networks in shaping disease transmission during a community outbreak of 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(7), 2825-2830.
  52. CDC. 2020a. How to Protect Yourself & Others ( Last accessed on 14 June 2020.
  53. CDC. 2020b. What to Do If You Are Sick ( Last accessed on 28 November 2020.
  54. CDC. 2020c. Symptoms of Coronavirus ( Last accessed on 28 November 2020
  55. Chan, J.F.-W., Yuan, S., Kok, K.-H., To, K.K.-W., Chu, H., Yang, J., Xing, F., Liu, J., Yip, C.C.-Y., Poon, R.W.-S., Tsoi, H.-W., Lo, S.K.-F., Chan, K.-H., Poon, V.K.-M., Chan, W.-M., Ip, J.D., Cai, J.-P., Cheng, V.C.-C., Chen, H., Hui, C.K.-M. & Yuen, K.-Y. 2020a. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. The Lancet, 395(10223), 514–523.
  56. Chan, J.F.-W., Zhang, A.J., Yuan, S., Poon, V.K.-M., Chan, C.C.-S., Lee, A.C.-Y., Chan, W.-M., Fan, Z., Tsoi, H.-W., Wen, L., Liang, R., Cao, J., Chen, Y., Tang, K., Luo, C., Cai, J.-P., Kok, K.-H., Chu, H., Chan, K.-H., Sridhar, S., Chen, Z., Chen, H., To, K.K.-W. & Yuen, K.-Y. 2020b. Simulation of the Clinical and Pathological Manifestations of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a Golden Syrian Hamster Model: Implications for Disease Pathogenesis and Transmissibility. Clinical infectious diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 71(9), 2428–2446.
  57. Chan, K.-H., Sridhar, S., Zhang, R.R., Chu, H., Fung, A.-F., Chan, G., Chan, J..-W., To, K..-W., Hung, I..-N., Cheng, V..-C. & Yuen, K.-Y. 2020c. Factors affecting stability and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Hospital Infection, 106(2), 226–231.
  58. Chen, L., Li, X., Chen, M., Feng, Y. & Xiong, C. 2020. The ACE2 expression in human heart indicates new potential mechanism of heart injury among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Cardiovascular Research, 116(6), 1097–1100.
  59. Chen, Y.-M.A., Liang, S.-Y., Shih, Y.-P., Chen, C.-Y., Lee, Y.-M., Chang, L., Jung, S.-Y., Ho, M.-S., Liang, K.-Y., Chen, H.-Y., Chan, Y.-J. & Chu, D.-C. 2006. Epidemiological and Genetic Correlates of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in the Hospital with the Highest Nosocomial Infection Rate in Taiwan in 2003. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 44(2), 359-365.
  60. Cheng, Z., Zhou, J., To, K.K.-W., Chu, H., Li, C., Wang, D., Yang, D., Zheng, S., Hao, K., Bossé, Y., Obeidat, M., Brandsma, C.-A., Song, Y.-Q., Chen, Y., Zheng, B.-J., Li, L. & Yuen, K.-Y. 2015. Identification of TMPRSS2 as a Susceptibility Gene for Severe 2009 Pandemic A(H1N1) Influenza and A(H7N9) Influenza. The Journal of infectious diseases, 212(8), 1214–1221.
  61. Choi, A., Ibañez, L.I., Strohmeier, S., Krammer, F., García-Sastre, A. & Schotsaert, M. 2020a. Non-sterilizing, Infection-Permissive Vaccination with Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccine Reshapes Subsequent Virus Infection-Induced Protective Heterosubtypic Immunity from Cellular to Humoral Cross-Reactive Immune Responses. Frontiers in immunology, 11, 1166.
  62. Choi, K.R., Skrine Jeffers, K. & Cynthia Logsdon, M. 2020b. Nursing and the novel coronavirus: Risks and responsibilities in a global outbreak. Journal of advanced nursing, 76(7), 1486–1487.
  63. Choo, S.Y. 2007. The HLA system: genetics, immunology, clinical testing, and clinical implications. Yonsei medical journal, 48(1), 11–23.
  64. Coate, K.C., Cha, J., Shrestha, S., Wang, W., Fasolino, M., Morgan, A., Dai, C., Saunders, D.C., Aramandla, R., Jenkins, R., Kapp, M.E., Stein, R., Kaestner, K.H., Vahedi, G., Brissova, M. & Powers, A.C. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are Expressed in the Pancreas but Not in Islet Endocrine Cells. bioRxiv, 2020.08.31.275719.
  65. Coelho, M.S., Lopes, K.L., Freitas, R. de A., Oliveira-Sales, E.B. de, Bergasmaschi, C.T., Campos, R.R., Casarini, D.E., Carmona, A.K., Araújo, M. da S., Heimann, J.C. & Dolnikoff, M.S. 2010. High sucrose intake in rats is associated with increased ACE2 and angiotensin-(1–7) levels in the adipose tissue. Regulatory Peptides, 162(1), 61–67.
  66. Correale, P., Mutti, L., Pentimalli, F., Baglio, G., Saladino, R.E., Sileri, P. & Giordano, A. 2020. HLA-B*44 and C*01 Prevalence Correlates with Covid19 Spreading across Italy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(15), 5205.
  67. Crux, N.B. & Elahi, S. 2017. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and Immune Regulation: How Do Classical and Non-Classical HLA Alleles Modulate Immune Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infections? Frontiers in immunology, 8, 832.
  68. Cui, J., Li, F. & Shi, Z.L. 2019. Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 17(3), 181–192.
  69. Daly, N. 2020a. Several gorillas test positive for COVID-19 at California zoo—first in the world ( Last accessed on 11 January 2021.
  70. Daly, N. 2020b. Seven more big cats test positive for coronavirus at Bronx Zoo ( Last accessed on 12 January 2021.
  71. Dehghani, R. & Kassiri, H. 2020. A Brief Review on the Possible Role of Houseflies and Cockroaches in the Mechanical Transmission of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases, 15(COVID-19), e102863.
  72. Delanghe, J.R., Speeckaert, M.M. & Buyzere, M.L. De. 2020a. The host’s angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphism may explain epidemiological findings in COVID-19 infections. Clinica Chimica Acta, 505, 192–193.
  73. Delanghe, J.R., Speeckaert, M.M. & Buyzere, M.L. De. 2020b. COVID-19 infections are also affected by human ACE1 D/I polymorphism. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), 58(7), 1125–1126.
  74. Demongeot, J., Flet-Berliac, Y. & Seligmann, H., 2020, Temperature Decreases Spread Parameters of the New Covid-19 Case Dynamics. Biology, 9(5), 94.
  75. Doremalen, V.N., Bushmaker, T., Morris, D.H., Holbrook, M.G., Gamble, A., Williamson, B.N., Tamin, A., Harcourt, J.L., Thornburg, N.J., Gerber, S.I., Lloyd-Smith, J.O., Wit, E. de & Munster, V.J. 2020. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(16), 1564–1567.
  76. Dragano, N., Rupprecht, C.J., Dortmann, O., Scheider, M. & Wahrendorf, M. 2020. Higher risk of COVID-19 hospitalization for unemployed: an analysis of 1,298,416 health insured individuals in Germany. medRxiv, 2020.06.17.20133918.
  77. Dubuis, M.-E., Dumont-Leblond, N., Laliberté, C., Veillette, M., Turgeon, N., Jean, J. & Duchaine, C. 2020. Ozone efficacy for the control of airborne viruses: Bacteriophage and norovirus models. PLOS ONE, 15(4), e0231164.
  78. Dudas, G., Carvalho, L.M., Rambaut, A. & Bedford, T. 2018. MERS-CoV spillover at the camel-human interface. eLife, 7, e31257.
  79. EUPATI. 2015. Risk factors in health and disease - EUPATI ( Last accessed on 10 February 2021.
  80. Feng, Z., & The Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team. 2020. The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) — China, 2020. China CDC Weekly, 2(8), 113–122.
  81. Ferretti, L., Wymant, C., Kendall, M., Zhao, L., Nurtay, A., Abeler-Dörner, L., Parker, M., Bonsall, D. & Fraser, C. 2020. Quantifying SARS-CoV-2 transmission suggests epidemic control with digital contact tracing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 368(6491), eabb6936.
  82. Flint, S.J., Racaniello, V.R., Rall, G.F., Skalka, A.M. & Enquist, L.W. 2015. Principles of virology (4th edition). Washington (DC): ASM Press.
  83. Foxman, E.F., Storer, J.A., Fitzgerald, M.E., Wasik, B.R., Hou, L., Zhao, H., Turner, P.E., Pyle, A.M. & Iwasaki, A. 2015. Temperature-dependent innate defense against the common cold virus limits viral replication at warm temperature in mouse airway cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(3), 827–832.
  84. Freuling, C.M., Breithaupt, A., Müller, T., Sehl, J., Balkema-Buschmann, A., Rissmann, M., Klein, A., Wylezich, C., Höper, D., Wernike, K., Aebischer, A., Hoffmann, D., Friedrichs, V., Dorhoi, A., Groschup, M.H., Beer, M. & Mettenleiter, T.C. 2020. Susceptibility of Raccoon Dogs for Experimental SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(12), 2982–2985.
  85. Gartland, A. 2020. SARS-CoV-2: lab-origin hypothesis gains traction ( Last accessed on 25 November 2020.
  86. Gemmati, D., Bramanti, B., Serino, M.L., Secchiero, P., Zauli, G. & Tisato, V. 2020. COVID-19 and Individual Genetic Susceptibility/Receptivity: Role of ACE1/ACE2 Genes, Immunity, Inflammation and Coagulation. Might the Double X-chromosome in Females Be Protective against SARS-CoV-2 Compared to the Single X-Chromosome in Males? International journal of molecular sciences, 21(10), 3474.
  87. Gollom, M. 2020. COVID-19 likely won’t end the handshake, but could it lead to some handshake-free zones?( Last accessed on 27 June 2020.
  88. Guan, W., Ni, Z., Hu, Yu, Liang, W., Ou, C., He, J., Liu, L., Shan, H., Lei, C., Hui, D.S.C., Du, B., Li, L., Zeng, G., Yuen, K.-Y., Chen, R., Tang, C., Wang, T., Chen, P., Xiang, J., Li, S., Wang, Jin-lin, Liang, Z., Peng, Y., Wei, L., Liu, Y., Hu, Ya-hua, Peng, P., Wang, Jian-ming, Liu, J., Chen, Z., Li, G., Zheng, Z., Qiu, S., Luo, J., Ye, C., Zhu, S. & Zhong, N. 2020. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. New England Journal of Medicine, 382, 1708-1720.
  89. Guo, L., Ren, L., Yang, S., Xiao, M., Chang, D., Yang, F., Cruz, C.S. Dela, Wang, Y., Wu, C., Xiao, Y., Zhang, L., Han, L., Dang, S., Xu, Y., Yang, Q.-W., Xu, S.-Y., Zhu, H.-D., Xu, Y.-C., Jin, Q., Sharma, L., Wang, L. & Wang, J. 2020a. Profiling Early Humoral Response to Diagnose Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Clinical Infectious Diseases, 71(15), 778-785.
  90. Guo, W., Li, M., Dong, Y., Zhou, H., Zhang, Z., Tian, C., Qin, R., Wang, H., Shen, Y., Du, K., Zhao, L., Fan, H., Luo, S. & Hu, D. 2020b. Diabetes is a risk factor for the progression and prognosis of COVID-19. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews, e3319.
  91. Guo, Z.-D., Wang, Z.-Y., Zhang, S.-F., Li, X., Li, L., Li, C., Cui, Y., Fu, R.-B., Dong, Y.-Z., Chi, X.-Y., Zhang, M.-Y., Liu, K., Cao, C., Liu, B., Zhang, K., Gao, Y.-W., Lu, B. & Chen, W. 2020c. Aerosol and Surface Distribution of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Hospital Wards, Wuhan, China, 2020. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(7), 1583-1591.
  92. Gupta, A., Banerjee, S. & Das, S. 2020. Significance of geographical factors to the COVID-19 outbreak in India. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 1-9.
  93. Habel, J.R., Nguyen, T.H.O., Sandt, C.E. van de, Juno, J.A., Chaurasia, P., Wragg, K., Koutsakos, M., Hensen, L., Jia, X., Chua, B., Zhang, W., Tan, H.-X., Flanagan, K.L., Doolan, D.L., Torresi, J., Chen, W., Wakim, L.M., Cheng, A.C., Doherty, P.C., Petersen, J., Rossjohn, J., Wheatley, A.K., Kent, S.J., Rowntree, L.C. & Kedzierska, K. 2020. Suboptimal SARS-CoV-2−specific CD8 T cell response associated with the prominent HLA-A*02:01 phenotype. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(39), 24384-24391.
  94. Hadi, A., Werge, M., Kristiansen, K.T., Pedersen, U.G., Karstensen, J.G., Novovic, S. & Gluud, L.L. 2020. Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) associated with severe acute pancreatitis: Case report on three family members. Pancreatology, 20(4), 665–667.
  95. Hajeer, A.H., Balkhy, H., Johani, S., Yousef, M.Z. & Arabi, Y. 2016. Association of human leukocyte antigen class II alleles with severe Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus infection. Annals of thoracic medicine, 11(3), 211–213.
  96. Härdtner, C., Mörke, C., Walther, R., Wolke, C. & Lendeckel, U. 2013. High glucose activates the alternative ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas and APN/Ang IV/IRAP RAS axes in pancreatic β-cells. International journal of molecular medicine, 32(4), 795–804.
  97. Hartman, A.L., Nambulli, S., McMillen, C.M., White, A.G., Tilston-Lunel, N.L., Albe, J.R., Cottle, E., Dunn, M.D., Frye, L.J., Gilliland, T.H., Olsen, E.L., O’Malley, K.J., Schwarz, M.M., Tomko, J.A., Walker, R.C., Xia, M., Hartman, M.S., Klein, E., Scanga, C.A., Flynn, J.L., Klimstra, W.B., McElroy, A.K., Reed, D.S. & Duprex, W.P. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 infection of African green monkeys results in mild respiratory disease discernible by PET/CT imaging and shedding of infectious virus from both respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. PLOS Pathogens, 16(9), e1008903.
  98. He, J., Guo, Y., Mao, R. & Zhang, J. 2021. Proportion of asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of medical virology, 93(2), 820–830.
  99. He, X., Lau, E.H.Y., Wu, P., Deng, X., Wang, J., Hao, X., Lau, Y.C., Wong, J.Y., Guan, Y., Tan, X., Mo, X., Chen, Y., Liao, B., Chen, W., Hu, F., Zhang, Q., Zhong, M., Wu, Y., Zhao, L., Zhang, F., Cowling, B.J., Li, F. & Leung, G.M. 2020. Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19. Nature Medicine, 26(5), 672–675.
  100. Heijink, I.H., Brandenburg, S.M., Postma, D.S. & Oosterhout, A.J.M. van. 2012. Cigarette smoke impairs airway epithelial barrier function and cell–cell contact recovery. European Respiratory Journal, 39(2), 419–428.
  101. Herron, J.B.T., Hay-David, A.G.C., Gilliam, A.D. & Brennan, P.A. 2020. Personal protective equipment and Covid 19- a risk to healthcare staff? The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery, 58(5), 500–502.
  102. Higham, A. & Singh, D. 2020. Increased ACE2 Expression in Bronchial Epithelium of COPD Patients who are Overweight. Obesity, 28(9), 1586–1589.
  103. Hoffman, B.L., Felter, E.M., Chu, K.-H., Shensa, A., Hermann, C., Wolynn, T., Williams, D. & Primack, B.A. 2019. It’s not all about autism: The emerging landscape of anti-vaccination sentiment on Facebook. Vaccine, 37(16), 2216–2223.
  104. Hoffmann, M., Kleine-Weber, H., Schroeder, S., Krüger, N., Herrler, T., Erichsen, S., Schiergens, T.S., Herrler, G., Wu, N.-H., Nitsche, A., Müller, M.A., Drosten, C. & Pöhlmann, S. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor. Cell, 181(2), 271-280.e8.
  105. Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., Gu, X., Cheng, Z., Yu, T., Xia, J., Wei, Y., Wu, W., Xie, X., Yin, W., Li, H., Liu, M., Xiao, Y., Gao, H., Guo, L., Xie, J., Wang, G., Jiang, R., Gao, Z., Jin, Q., Wang, J. & Cao, B. 2020a. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395(10223), 497–506.
  106. Huang, I., Lim, M.A. & Pranata, R. 2020b. Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased mortality and severity of disease in COVID-19 pneumonia - A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. Diabetes & metabolic syndrome, 14(4), 395–403.
  107. Huang, Y.-J.S., Vanlandingham, D.L., Bilyeu, A.N., Sharp, H.M., Hettenbach, S.M. & Higgs, S. 2020c. SARS-CoV-2 failure to infect or replicate in mosquitoes: an extreme challenge. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 11915.
  108. Hussain, A., Bhowmik, B. & do Vale Moreira, N.C. 2020a. COVID-19 and diabetes: Knowledge in progress. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 162, 108142.
  109. Hussain, M., Jabeen, N., Raza, F., Shabbir, S., Baig, A.A., Amanullah, A. & Aziz, B. 2020b. Structural variations in human ACE2 may influence its binding with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Journal of Medical Virology.
  110. Imai, Y., Kuba, K., Rao, S., Huan, Y., Guo, F., Guan, B., Yang, P., Sarao, R., Wada, T., Leong-Poi, H., Crackower, M.A., Fukamizu, A., Hui, C.-C., Hein, L., Uhlig, S., Slutsky, A.S., Jiang, C. & Penninger, J.M. 2005. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from severe acute lung failure. Nature, 436(7047), 112–116.
  111. Islam, M.T., Sarkar, C., El-Kersh, D.M., Jamaddar, S., Uddin, S.J., Shilpi, J.A. & Mubarak, M.S. 2020.Natural products and their derivatives against coronavirus: A review of the non-clinical and pre-clinical data. Phytotherapy Research, 34(10), 2471-2492.
  112. Ito, T., Goto, H., Yamamoto, E., Tanaka, H., Takeuchi, M., Kuwayama, M., Kawaoka, Y. & Otsuki, K. 2001. Generation of a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus from an Avirulent Field Isolate by Passaging in Chickens. Journal of Virology, 75(9), 4439–4443.
  113. Iturrieta-Zuazo, I., Rita, C.G., García-Soidán, A., Malet Pintos-Fonseca, A. de, Alonso-Alarcón, N., Pariente-Rodríguez, R., Tejeda-Velarde, A., Serrano-Villar, S., Castañer-Alabau, J.L. & Nieto-Gañán, I. 2020. Possible role of HLA class-I genotype in SARS-CoV-2 infection and progression: A pilot study in a cohort of Covid-19 Spanish patients. Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.), 219, 108572.
  114. Jacob 3rd, P., Benowitz, N.L., Destaillats, H., Gundel, L., Hang, B., Martins-Green, M., Matt, G.E., Quintana, P.J.E., Samet, J.M., Schick, S.F., Talbot, P., Aquilina, N.J., Hovell, M.F., Mao, J.-H. & Whitehead, T.P. 2017. Thirdhand Smoke: New Evidence, Challenges, and Future Directions. Chemical research in toxicology, 30(1), 270–294.
  115. Jiang, Y., Wu, X.-J. & Guan, Y.-J. 2020. Effect of ambient air pollutants and meteorological variables on COVID-19 incidence. Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 41(9), 1011–1015.
  116. Johnson, N.F., Velásquez, N., Restrepo, N.J., Leahy, R., Gabriel, N., Oud, S. El, Zheng, M., Manrique, P., Wuchty, S. & Lupu, Y. 2020. The online competition between pro- and anti-vaccination views. Nature, 582(7811), 230–233.
  117. Johnstone-Robertson, S.P., Mark, D., Morrow, C., Middelkoop, K., Chiswell, M., Aquino, L.D.H., Bekker, L.-G. & Wood, R. 2011. Social mixing patterns within a South African township community: implications for respiratory disease transmission and control. American journal of epidemiology, 174(11), 1246–1255.
  118. Jonges, M., Leuken, J. van, Wouters, I., Koch, G., Meijer, A. & Koopmans, M. 2015. Wind-Mediated Spread of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus into the Environment during Outbreaks at Commercial Poultry Farms. PloS one, 10(5), e0125401.
  119. Kampf, G., Todt, D., Pfaender, S. & Steinmann, E. 2020. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. Journal of Hospital Infection, 104(3), 246–251.
  120. Kario, K., Morisawa, Y., Sukonthasarn, A., Turana, Y., Chia, Y.-C., Park, S., Wang, T.-D., Chen, C.-H., Tay, J.C., Li, Y., Wang, J.-G. & Hypertension Cardiovascular Outcome Prevention, E. in Asia (Hope Asia) Network. 2020. COVID-19 and hypertension—evidence and practical management: Guidance from the HOPE Asia Network. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 22(7), 1109–1119.
  121. Kaur, S.P. & Gupta, V. 2020. COVID-19 Vaccine: A comprehensive status report. Virus research, 288, 198114.
  122. Kerckhove, K. Van, Hens, N., Edmunds, W.J. & Eames, K.T.D. 2013. The impact of illness on social networks: implications for transmission and control of influenza. American journal of epidemiology, 178(11), 1655–1662.
  123. Khailany, R.A., Safdar, M. & Ozaslan, M. 2020. Genomic characterization of a novel SARS-CoV-2. Gene reports, 19, 100682.
  124. Khan, Y.H., Mallhi, T.H., Alotaibi, N.H., Alzarea, A.I., Alanazi, A.S., Tanveer, N. & Hashmi, F.K. 2020. Threat of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Pakistan: The Need for Measures to Neutralize Misleading Narratives. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 103(2), 603–604.
  125. Khayat, A.S., Assumpção, P.P. de, Meireles Khayat, B.C., Thomaz Araújo, T.M., Batista-Gomes, J.A., Imbiriba, L.C., Ishak, G., Assumpção, P.B. de, Moreira, F.C., Burbano, R.R., Ribeiro-dos-Santos, A., Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Â.K., Santos, N.P.C. dos & Santos, S.E.B. dos, 2021. ACE2 polymorphisms as potential players in COVID-19 outcome. PLOS ONE, 15(12), e0243887.
  126. Kim, D.S., Rowland-Jones, S. & Gea-Mallorquí, E. 2020. Will SARS-CoV-2 Infection Elicit Long-Lasting Protective or Sterilising Immunity? Implications for Vaccine Strategies (2020). Frontiers in Immunology, 11, 3190.
  127. Kiros, M., Andualem, H., Kiros, T., Hailemichael, W., Getu, S., Geteneh, A., Alemu, D. & Abegaz, W.E. 2020. COVID-19 pandemic: current knowledge about the role of pets and other animals in disease transmission. Virology Journal, 17(1), 143.
  128. Koh, D. 2020. Occupational risks for COVID-19 infection. Occupational medicine (Oxford, England), 70(1), 3–5.
  129. Konda, A., Prakash, A., Moss, G.A., Schmoldt, M., Grant, G.D. & Guha, S. 2020. Aerosol Filtration Efficiency of Common Fabrics Used in Respiratory Cloth Masks. ACS Nano, 14(5), 6339–6347.
  130. Konno, Y., Kimura, I., Uriu, K., Fukushi, M., Irie, T., Koyanagi, Y., Nakagawa, S. & Sato, K. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 ORF3b is a potent interferon antagonist whose activity is further increased by a naturally occurring elongation variant. Cell Reports, 32(12), 108185.
  131. Koyama, T., Lauring, A., Gallo, R. & Reitz, M. 2020. Reviews of ‘Unusual Features of the SARS-CoV-2 Genome Suggesting Sophisticated Laboratory Modification Rather Than Natural Evolution and Delineation of Its Probable Synthetic Route’ • Rapid Reviews COVID-19 ( Last accessed on 29 November 2020.
  132. Kratzel, A., Steiner, S., Todt, D., V’kovski, P., Brueggemann, Y., Steinmann, J., Steinmann, E., Thiel, V. & Pfaender, S. 2020. Temperature-dependent surface stability of SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Infection, 81(3), 452–482.
  133. Kreutz, R., Algharably, E.A.E.-H., Azizi, M., Dobrowolski, P., Guzik, T., Januszewicz, A., Persu, A., Prejbisz, A., Riemer, T.G., Wang, J.-G. & Burnier, M. 2020. Hypertension, the renin–angiotensin system, and the risk of lower respiratory tract infections and lung injury: implications for COVID-19: European Society of Hypertension COVID-19 Task Force Review of Evidence. Cardiovascular Research, 116(10), 1688–1699.
  134. Kucharski, A.J., Kwok, K.O., Wei, V.W.I., Cowling, B.J., Read, J.M., Lessler, J., Cummings, D.A. & Riley, S. 2014. The Contribution of Social Behaviour to the Transmission of Influenza A in a Human Population. PLoS Pathogens, 10(6), e1004206.
  135. Kumar, Ashish, Arora, A., Sharma, P., Anikhindi, S.A., Bansal, N., Singla, V., Khare, S. & Srivastava, A. 2020a. Is diabetes mellitus associated with mortality and severity of COVID-19? A meta-analysis. Diabetes & metabolic syndrome, 14(4), 535–545.
  136. Kumar, Ashutosh, Pandey, S.N., Pareek, V., Narayan, R.K., Faiq, M.A. & Kumari, C. 2020b. Predicting susceptibility for SARS-CoV-2 infection in domestic and wildlife animals using ACE2 protein sequence homology. Zoo Biology, 40(1), 79-85.
  137. Lan, F.-Y., Wei, C.-F., Hsu, Y.-T., Christiani, D.C. & Kales, S.N. 2020. Work-related COVID-19 transmission in six Asian countries/areas: A follow-up study. PLOS ONE, 15(5), e0233588.
  138. Lauer, S.A., Grantz, K.H., Bi, Q., Jones, F.K., Zheng, Q., Meredith, H.R., Azman, A.S., Reich, N.G. & Lessler, J. 2020. The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application. Annals of internal medicine, 172(9), 577–582.
  139. Lavine, J.S., Bjornstad, O.N. & Antia, R. 2021. Immunological characteristics govern the transition of COVID-19 to endemicity. Science, eabe6522.
  140. Lavrentyev, E.N., Estes, A.M. & Malik, K.U. 2007. Mechanism of High Glucose–Induced Angiotensin II Production in Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. Circulation Research, 101(5), 455–464.
  141. LeGresley, S.E., Valle, S.Y. Del & Hyman, J.M. 2011. Quantifying How Social Mixing Patterns Affect Disease Transmission. Computational Social Science Society of America Annual Conference. 9-12 October, 2011. Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. pp 1-27
  142. Leung, J.M., Yang, C.X., Tam, A., Shaipanich, T., Hackett, T.-L., Singhera, G.K., Dorscheid, D.R. & Sin, D.D. 2020a. ACE-2 expression in the small airway epithelia of smokers and COPD patients: implications for COVID-19. European Respiratory Journal, 55(5), 2000688.
  143. Leung, N.H., Chu, D.K.W., Shiu, E.Y.C., Chan, K.-H., McDevitt, J.J., Hau, B.J.P., Yen, H.-L., Li, Y., Ip, D.K.M., Peiris, J.S.M., Seto, W.-H., Leung, G.M., Milton, D.K. & Cowling, B.J. 2020b. Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks. Nature Medicine, 26(5), 676–680.
  144. Li, H., Tian, S., Chen, T., Cui, Z., Shi, N., Zhong, X., Qiu, K., Zhang, J., Zeng, T., Chen, L. & Zheng, J. 2020a. Newly diagnosed diabetes is associated with a higher risk of mortality than known diabetes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Diabetes, obesity & metabolism, 22(10), 1897-1906.
  145. Li, Xiaowei, Geng, M., Peng, Y., Meng, L. & Lu, S. 2020b. Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 10(2), 102–108.
  146. Li, Xiaojun, Giorgi, E.E., Marichannegowda, M.H., Foley, B., Xiao, C., Kong, X.-P., Chen, Y., Gnanakaran, S., Korber, B. & Gao, F. 2020c. Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 through recombination and strong purifying selection. Science Advances, 6(27), eabb9153.
  147. Li, Xiaochen, Xu, S., Yu, M., Wang, K., Tao, Y., Zhou, Y., Shi, J., Zhou, M., Wu, B., Yang, Z., Zhang, C., Yue, J., Zhang, Z., Renz, H., Liu, X., Xie, J., Xie, M. & Zhao, J. 2020d. Risk factors for severity and mortality in adult COVID-19 inpatients in Wuhan. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 146(1), 110–118.
  148. Lin, M., Tseng, H.-K., Trejaut, J.A., Lee, H.-L., Loo, J.-H., Chu, C.-C., Chen, P.-J., Su, Y.-W., Lim, K.H., Tsai, Z.-U., Lin, R.-Y., Lin, R.-S. & Huang, C.-H. 2003. Association of HLA class I with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. BMC Medical Genetics, 4(1), 9.
  149. Lippi, G. & Henry, B.M. 2020. Active smoking is not associated with severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). European journal of internal medicine, 75, 107–108.
  150. Liu, F., Long, X., Zhang, B., Zhang, W., Chen, X. & Zhang, Z. 2020a. ACE2 Expression in Pancreas May Cause Pancreatic Damage After SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association, 18(9), 2128-2130.e2.
  151. Liu, J., Zhou, J., Yao, J., Zhang, X., Li, L., Xu, X., He, X., Wang, B., Fu, S., Niu, T., Yan, J., Shi, Y., Ren, X., Niu, J., Zhu, W., Li, S., Luo, B. & Zhang, K. 2020b. Impact of meteorological factors on the COVID-19 transmission: A multi-city study in China. Science of The Total Environment, 726, 138513.
  152. Liu, Y., Gayle, A.A., Wilder-Smith, A. & Rocklöv, J. 2020c. The reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher compared to SARS coronavirus. Journal of Travel Medicine, 27(2), taaa021.
  153. Long, Q.-X., Tang, X.-J., Shi, Q.-L., Li, Q., Deng, H.-J., Yuan, J., Hu, J.-L., Xu, W., Zhang, Y., Lv, F.-J., Su, K., Zhang, F., Gong, J., Wu, B., Liu, X.-M., Li, J.-J., Qiu, J.-F., Chen, J. & Huang, A.-L. 2020a. Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Nature Medicine, 26, 1200–1204.
  154. Long, Y., Hu, T., Liu, L., Chen, R., Guo, Q., Yang, L., Cheng, Y., Huang, J. & Du, L. 2020b. Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks against influenza: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of evidence-based medicine, 13(2), 93–101.
  155. Lu, Q., Gottlieb, E. & Rounds, S. 2018. Effects of cigarette smoke on pulmonary endothelial cells. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 314(5), L743–L756.
  156. Lynott, D., Corker, K.S., Connell, L. & O’Brien, K.S. 2017. The effect of haptic and ambient temperature experience on prosocial behavior. Archives of Scientific Psychology, 5(1), 10–18.
  157. Ma, Y., Zhao, Y., Liu, J., He, X., Wang, B., Fu, S., Yan, J., Niu, J., Zhou, J. & Luo, B. 2020. Effects of temperature variation and humidity on the death of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Science of The Total Environment, 724, 138226.
  158. MacGowan, S.A. & Barton, G.J. 2020. Missense variants in ACE2 are predicted to encourage and inhibit interaction with SARS-CoV-2 Spike and contribute to genetic risk in COVID-19. bioRxiv, 2020.05.03.074781.
  159. MacIntyre, C.R & Hasanain, J.S. 2020. Community universal face mask use during the COVID 19 pandemic-from households to travellers and public spaces. Journal of travel medicine, 27(3), taaa056.
  160. Madhav, N., Oppenheim, B., Gallivan, M., Mulembakani, P., Rubin, E. & Wolfe, N. 2017. Pandemics: Risks, Impacts and Mitigation. Disease Control Priorities: Improving Health and Reducing Poverty (3rd edition, Vol. 9). Washington (DC): The World Bank.
  161. Mathews, J.D., Chesson, J.M., McCaw, J.M. & McVernon, J. 2009. Understanding influenza transmission, immunity and pandemic threats. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 3(4), 143–149.
  162. Mathuria, J.P., Yadav, R. & Rajkumar. 2020. Laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 - A review of current methods. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 13(7), 901–905.
  163. Matsuyama, R., Nishiura, H., Kutsuna, S., Hayakawa, K. & Ohmagari, N. 2016. Clinical determinants of the severity of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC public health, 16(1), 1203.
  164. Mattei, M., Hubert, C., Alhenc-Gelas, F., Roeckel, N., Corvol, P. & Soubrier, F. 1989. Angiotensin I converting enzyme gene is on chromosome 17. Cytogenet Cell Genet, 51, 1041–1045.
  165. Mela, S. & Whitworth, D.E. 2014. The fist bump: A more hygienic alternative to the handshake. American Journal of Infection Control, 42(8), 916–917.
  166. Melegaro, A., Jit, M., Gay, N., Zagheni, E. & Edmunds, W.J. 2011. What types of contacts are important for the spread of infections? Using contact survey data to explore European mixing patterns. Epidemics, 3(3), 143–151.
  167. Memish, Z. 2014. MERS-COV. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 21, 71.
  168. Menebo, M.M. 2020. Temperature and precipitation associate with Covid-19 new daily cases: A correlation study between weather and Covid-19 pandemic in Oslo, Norway. Science of The Total Environment, 737, 139659.
  169. Montecino-Rodriguez, E., Berent-Maoz, B. & Dorshkind, K. 2013. Causes, consequences, and reversal of immune system aging. The Journal of clinical investigation, 123(3), 958–965.
  170. Morawska, L., Tang, J.W., Bahnfleth, W., Bluyssen, P.M., Boerstra, A., Buonanno, G., Cao, J., Dancer, S., Floto, A., Franchimon, F., Haworth, C., Hogeling, J., Isaxon, C., Jimenez, J.L., Kurnitski, J., Li, Y., Loomans, M., Marks, G., Marr, L.C., Mazzarella, L., Melikov, A.K., Miller, S., Milton, D.K., Nazaroff, W., Nielsen, P. V, Noakes, C., Peccia, J., Querol, X., Sekhar, C., Seppänen, O., Tanabe, S., Tellier, R., Tham, K.W., Wargocki, P., Wierzbicka, A. & Yao, M. 2020. How can airborne transmission of COVID-19 indoors be minimised? Environment International, 142, 105832.
  171. Mossong, J., Hens, N., Jit, M., Beutels, P., Auranen, K., Mikolajczyk, R., Massari, M., Salmaso, S., Tomba, G.S., Wallinga, J., Heijne, J., Sadkowska-Todys, M., Rosinska, M. & Edmunds, W.J. 2008. Social Contacts and Mixing Patterns Relevant to the Spread of Infectious Diseases. PLOS Medicine, 5(3), e74.
  172. Munster, V.J., Feldmann, F., Williamson, B.N., Doremalen, N. van, Pérez-Pérez, L., Schulz, J., Meade-White, K., Okumura, A., Callison, J., Brumbaugh, B., Avanzato, V.A., Rosenke, R., Hanley, P.W., Saturday, G., Scott, D., Fischer, E.R. & Wit, E. de. 2020. Respiratory disease in rhesus macaques inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Nature, 585(7824), 268–272.
  173. Mykytyn, A.Z., Lamers, M.M., Okba, N.M.A., Breugem, T.I., Schipper, D., Doel, P.B. van den, Run, P. van, Amerongen, G. van, Waal, L. de, Koopmans, M.P.G., Stittelaar, K.J., Brand, J.M.A. van den & Haagmans, B.L. 2021. Susceptibility of rabbits to SARS-CoV-2’, Emerging Microbes & Infections, 10(1), 1–7.
  174. Naeem, Z. 2015. Second-hand smoke - ignored implications. International journal of health sciences, 9(2), V–VI.
  175. Naqvi, A.A.T., Fatima, K., Mohammad, T., Fatima, U., Singh, I.K., Singh, A., Atif, S.M., Hariprasad, G., Hasan, G.M. & Hassan, M.I. 2020. Insights into SARS-CoV-2 genome, structure, evolution, pathogenesis and therapies: Structural genomics approach. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease, 1866(10), 165878.
  176. Ng, M.H.L., Lau, K.-M., Li, L., Cheng, S.-H., Chan, W.Y., Hui, P.K., Zee, B., Leung, C.-B. & Sung, J.J.Y. 2004. Association of Human-Leukocyte-Antigen Class I (B*0703) and Class II (DRB1*0301) Genotypes with Susceptibility and Resistance to the Development of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 190(3), 515–518.
  177. Nguyen, A., David, J.K., Maden, S.K., Wood, M.A., Weeder, B.R., Nellore, A. & Thompson, R.F. 2020a. Human Leukocyte Antigen Susceptibility Map for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Journal of Virology, 94(13), e00510-20.
  178. Nguyen, L.H., Drew, D.A., Graham, M.S., Joshi, A.D., Guo, C.-G., Ma, W., Mehta, R.S., Warner, E.T., Sikavi, D.R., Lo, C.-H., Kwon, S., Song, M., Mucci, L.A., Stampfer, M.J., Willett, W.C., Eliassen, A.H., Hart, J.E., Chavarro, J.E., Rich-Edwards, J.W., Davies, R., Capdevila, J., Lee, K.A., Lochlainn, M.N., Varsavsky, T., Sudre, C.H., Cardoso, M.J., Wolf, J., Spector, T.D., Ourselin, S., Steves, C.J., Chan, A.T., Albert, C.M., Andreotti, G., Bala, B., Balasubramanian, B.A., Beane-Freeman, L.E., Brownstein, J.S., Bruinsma, F.J., Coresh, J., Costa, R., Cowan, A.N., Deka, A., Deming-Halverson, S.L., Elena Martinez, M., Ernst, M.E., Figueiredo, J.C., Fortuna, P., Franks, P.W., Freeman, L.B., Gardner, C.D., Ghobrial, I.M., Haiman, C.A., Hall, J.E., Kang, J.H., Kirpach, B., Koenen, K.C., Kubzansky, L.D., Lacey, Jr, J. V, Marchand, L. Le, Lin, X., Lutsey, P., Marinac, C.R., Martinez, M.E., Milne, R.L., Murray, A.M., Nash, D., Palmer, J.R., Patel, A. V, Pierce, E., Robertson, M.M., Rosenberg, L., Sandler, D.P., Schurman, S.H., Sewalk, K., Sharma, S. V, Sidey-Gibbons, C.J., Slevin, L., Smoller, J.W., Steves, C.J., Tiirikainen, M.I., Weiss, S.T., Wilkens, L.R. & Zhang, F. 2020b. Risk of COVID-19 among front-line health-care workers and the general community: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet Public Health, 5(9), e475–e483.
  179. Nishiga, M., Wang, D.W., Han, Y., Lewis, D.B. & Wu, J.C. 2020. COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease: from basic mechanisms to clinical perspectives. Nature Reviews Cardiology, 17(9), 543–558.
  180. Nissen, K., Krambrich, J., Akaberi, D., Hoffman, T., Ling, J., Lundkvist, Å., Svensson, L. & Salaneck, E. 2020. Long-distance airborne dispersal of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 wards. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 19589.
  181. Ogata, N., Sakasegawa, M., Miura, T., Shibata, T., Takigawa, Y., Taura, K., Taguchi, K., Matsubara, K., Nakahara, K., Kato, D., Sogawa, K. & Oka, H. 2016. Inactivation of Airborne Bacteria and Viruses Using Extremely Low Concentrations of Chlorine Dioxide Gas. Pharmacology, 97(5–6), 301–306.
  182. Oreshkova, N., Molenaar, R.J., Vreman, S., Harders, F., Oude Munnink, B.B., Hakze-van der Honing, R.W., Gerhards, N., Tolsma, P., Bouwstra, R., Sikkema, R.S., Tacken, M.G., Rooij, M.M. de, Weesendorp, E., Engelsma, M.Y., Bruschke, C.J., Smit, L.A., Koopmans, M., Poel, W.H. van der & Stegeman, A. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, the Netherlands, April and May 2020. Euro surveillance: bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 25(23), 2001005.
  183. Ortiz-Fernández, L. & Sawalha, A.H. 2020. Genetic variability in the expression of the SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry factors across populations. Genes & Immunity, 21(4), 269–272.
  184. Ovsyannikova, I.G., Pankratz, V.S., Vierkant, R.A., Pajewski, N.M., Quinn, C.P., Kaslow, R.A., Jacobson, R.M. & Poland, G.A. 2013. Human leukocyte antigens and cellular immune responses to anthrax vaccine adsorbed. Infection and immunity, 81(7), 2584–2591.
  185. Pal, R. & Bhansali, A. 2020. COVID-19, diabetes mellitus and ACE2: The conundrum. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 162, 108132.
  186. Pang, M., Bala, S., Kodys, K., Catalano, D. & Szabo, G. 2011. Inhibition of TLR8- and TLR4-induced Type I IFN induction by alcohol is different from its effects on inflammatory cytokine production in monocytes. BMC immunology, 12, 55.
  187. Paniri, A., Hosseini, M.M. & Akhavan-Niaki, H. 2020. First comprehensive computational analysis of functional consequences of TMPRSS2 SNPs in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 among different populations. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, 1–18.
  188. Pitchiah, K.M., Sundaram, M.K. & Ramasamy, M.S. 2020. Coronavirus spike (S) glycoprotein (2019-ncov) targeted siddha medicines kabasura kudineer and thonthasura kudineer–in silico evidence for corona viral drug. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care, 12(1), 20–27.
  189. Paoloni-Giacobino, A., Chen, H., Peitsch, M.C., Rossier, C. & Antonarakis, S.E. 1997. Cloning of the TMPRSS2 gene, which encodes a novel serine protease with transmembrane, LDLRA, and SRCR domains and maps to 21q22.3. Genomics, 44(3), 309–320.
  190. Parveen, R., Sehar, N., Bajpai, R. & Agarwal, N.B. 2020. Association of diabetes and hypertension with disease severity in covid-19 patients: A systematic literature review and exploratory meta-analysis. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 166.
  191. Patel, J. V, Chackathayil, J., Hughes, E.A., Webster, C., Lip, G.Y.H. & Gill, P.S. 2013. Vitamin D deficiency amongst minority ethnic groups in the UK: a cross sectional study. International Journal of Cardiology, 167(5), 2172–2176.
  192. Pranata, R., MA, L., I, H., Raharjo, S. & Lukito, A. 2020. Hypertension is associated with increased mortality and severity of disease in COVID-19 pneumonia: A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta regression. Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, 21(2), 1470320320926899.
  193. Prata, D.N., Rodrigues, W. & Bermejo, P.H. 2020. Temperature significantly changes COVID-19 transmission in (sub)tropical cities of Brazil. Science of The Total Environment, 729, 138862.
  194. PTI. 2020. Not shaking hands can dramatically decrease spread of coronavirus, influenza, says infectious disease expert ( Last accessed on 27 June 2020.
  195. Purkayastha, A., Sen, C., Garcia Jr., G., Langerman, J., Shia, D.W., Meneses, L.K., Vijayaraj, P., Durra, A., Koloff, C.R., Freund, D.R., Chi, J., Rickabaugh, T.M., Mulay, A., Konda, B., Sim, M.S., Stripp, B.R., Plath, K., Arumugaswami, V. & Gomperts, B.N. 2020. Direct Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and Cigarette Smoke Increases Infection Severity and Alters the Stem Cell-Derived Airway Repair Response. Cell Stem Cell, 27(6), 869-875.e4.
  196. Qi, J., Zhou, Y., Hua, J., Zhang, L., Bian, J., Liu, B., Zhao, Z. & Jin, S. 2020. The scRNA-seq expression profiling of the receptor ACE2 and the cellular protease TMPRSS2 reveals human organs susceptible to COVID-19 infection. bioRxiv, 2020.04.16.045690.
  197. Qiu, F., Liang, C.-L., Liu, H., Zeng, Y.-Q., Hou, S., Huang, S., Lai, X. & Dai, Z. 2017. Impacts of cigarette smoking on immune responsiveness: Up and down or upside down? Oncotarget, 8(1), 268–284.
  198. Rahman, S., Rahman, T., Ismail, A.A.-S. & Rashid, A.R.A. 2007. Diabetes-associated macrovasculopathy: pathophysiology and pathogenesis. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 9(6), 767–780.
  199. Raifman, M.A. & Raifman, J.R. 2020. Disparities in the Population at Risk of Severe Illness From COVID-19 by Race/Ethnicity and Income. American journal of preventive medicine, 59(1), 137-139.
  200. Rames, A., 2020. Reviewing Seadornaviruses: The Next Dengue? Transactions on Science and Technology, 7(2), 64–79.
  201. Rashid, Z.Z., Othman, S.N., Abdul Samat, M.N., Ali, U.K. & Wong, K.K. 2020. Diagnostic performance of COVID-19 serology assays. The Malaysian journal of pathology, 42(1), 13–21.
  202. Rendana, M. 2020. Impact of the wind conditions on COVID-19 pandemic: A new insight for direction of the spread of the virus. Urban climate, 34, 100680.
  203. Richardson, S., Hirsch, J.S., Narasimhan, M., Crawford, J.M., McGinn, T., Davidson, K.W. & Consortium, and the N.C.-19 R. 2020. Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area. JAMA, 323(20), 2052–2059.
  204. Riddell, S., Goldie, S., Hill, A., Eagles, D. & Drew, T.W. 2020. The effect of temperature on persistence of SARS-CoV-2 on common surfaces. Virology Journal, 17(1), 145.
  205. Rieder, M.J., Taylor, S.L., Clark, A.G. & Nickerson, D.A. 1999. Sequence variation in the human angiotensin converting enzyme. Nature Genetics, 22(1), 59–62.
  206. Rigat, B., Hubert, C., Alhenc-Gelas, F., Cambien, F., Corvol, P. & Soubrier, F. 1990. An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene accounting for half the variance of serum enzyme levels. The Journal of clinical investigation, 86(4), 1343–1346.
  207. Roncon, L., Zuin, M., Rigatelli, G. & Zuliani, G. 2020. Diabetic patients with COVID-19 infection are at higher risk of ICU admission and poor short-term outcome. Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology, 127, 104354.
  208. Rosario, D.K.A., Mutz, Y.S., Bernardes, P.C. & Conte-Junior, C.A. 2020. Relationship between COVID-19 and weather: Case study in a tropical country. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 229, 113587.
  209. Russo, P., Bonassi, S., Giacconi, R., Malavolta, M., Tomino, C. & Maggi, F. 2020a. COVID-19 and Smoking. Is Nicotine the Hidden Link? European Respiratory Journal, 2001116.
  210. Russo, R., Andolfo, I., Lasorsa, V.A., Iolascon, A. & Capasso, M. 2020b. Genetic analysis of the novel SARS-CoV-2 host receptor TMPRSS2 in different populations. bioRxiv, 2020.04.23.057190.
  211. Saadati, M., Chegni, H., Ghaffari, A.D. & Hassan, Z.M. 2020. The Potential Association of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-A and -B with COVID-19 Mortality: A Neglected Risk Factor. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 49(12), 2433–2434.
  212. Şahin, M. 2020. Impact of weather on COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey. The Science of the total environment, 728, 138810.
  213. Sajjan, U.S. 2013. Susceptibility to viral infections in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: role of epithelial cells. Current opinion in pulmonary medicine, 19(2), 125–132.
  214. Sakuraba, A., Haider, H. & Sato, T. 2020. Population Difference in Allele Frequency of HLA-C*05 and Its Correlation with COVID-19 Mortality. Viruses, 12(11), 1333.
  215. Santarpia, J.L., Rivera, D.N., Herrera, V.L., Morwitzer, M.J., Creager, H.M., Santarpia, G.W., Crown, K.K., Brett-Major, D.M., Schnaubelt, E.R., Broadhurst, M.J., Lawler, J. V, Reid, S.P. & Lowe, J.J. 2020. Aerosol and surface contamination of SARS-CoV-2 observed in quarantine and isolation care. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12732.
  216. Santos, N.P.C., Khayat, A.S., Rodrigues, J.C.G., Pinto, P.C., Araujo, G.S., Pastana, L.F., Medeiros, J.A.G., Fernandes, M.R., Ribeiro dos Santos, Arthur, Khayat, B.C.M., Moreira, F.C., Ribeiro dos Santos, A.M., Assumpcao, P.B., Ribeiro dos Santos, Andrea, Assumpcao, P.P. & Santos, S. 2020. TMPRSS2 variants and their susceptibility to COVID-19: focus in East Asian and European populations. medRxiv, 2020.06.09.20126680.
  217. Sarkanen, T.O., Alakuijala, A.P.E., Dauvilliers, Y.A. & Partinen, M.M. 2018. Incidence of narcolepsy after H1N1 influenza and vaccinations: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 38, 177–186.
  218. Schlottau, K., Rissmann, M., Graaf, A., Schön, J., Sehl, J., Wylezich, C., Höper, D., Mettenleiter, T.C., Balkema-Buschmann, A., Harder, T., Grund, C., Hoffmann, D., Breithaupt, A. & Beer, M. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 in fruit bats, ferrets, pigs, and chickens: an experimental transmission study. The Lancet Microbe, 1(5), e218–e225.
  219. Seto, W.H., Tsang, D., Yung, R.W.H., Ching, T.Y., Ng, T.K., Ho, M., Ho, L.M., Peiris, J.S.M. & Authority, A. of E.S. group of H. 2003. Effectiveness of precautions against droplets and contact in prevention of nosocomial transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Lancet (London, England), 361(9368), 1519–1520.
  220. Setti, L., Passarini, F., Gennaro, G. De, Barbieri, P., Perrone, M.G., Borelli, M., Palmisani, J., Gilio, A. Di, Torboli, V., Fontana, F., Clemente, L., Pallavicini, A., Ruscio, M., Piscitelli, P. & Miani, A. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 RNA found on particulate matter of Bergamo in Northern Italy: First evidence. Environmental Research, 188, 109754.
  221. Shang, S., Ordway, D., Henao-Tamayo, M., Bai, X., Oberley-Deegan, R., Shanley, C., Orme, I.M., Case, S., Minor, M., Ackart, D., Hascall-Dove, L., Ovrutsky, A.R., Kandasamy, P., Voelker, D.R., Lambert, C., Freed, B.M., Iseman, M.D., Basaraba, R.J. & Chan, E.D. 2011. Cigarette Smoke Increases Susceptibility to Tuberculosis—Evidence From In Vivo and In Vitro Models. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 203(9), 1240–1248.
  222. Sharif-Askari, N.S., Sharif-Askari, F.S., Alabed, M., Temsah, M.-H., Alheialy, S., Hamid, Q. & Halwani, R. 2020. Airways expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2, and TMPRSS2 is lower in children than adults and increases with smoking and COPD. Molecular Therapy - Methods & Clinical Development, 18, 1-6.
  223. Shi, J., Wen, Z., Zhong, G., Yang, H., Wang, C., Huang, B., Liu, R., He, X., Shuai, L., Sun, Z., Zhao, Y., Liu, P., Liang, L., Cui, P., Wang, J., Zhang, X., Guan, Y., Tan, W., Wu, G., Chen, H. & Bu, Z. 2020a. Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS–coronavirus 2. Science, 368(6494), 1016–1020.
  224. Shi, P., Dong, Y., Yan, H., Zhao, C., Li, X., Liu, W., He, M., Tang, S. & Xi, S. 2020b. Impact of temperature on the dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Science of The Total Environment, 728, 138890.
  225. Simon, A.K., Hollander, G.A. & McMichael, A. 2015. Evolution of the immune system in humans from infancy to old age. Proceedings. Biological sciences, 282(1821), 20143085.
  226. Simou, E., Britton, J. & Leonardi-Bee, J. 2018. Alcohol and the risk of pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ open, 8(8), e022344.
  227. Singh, A.K., Gupta, R., Ghosh, A. & Misra, A. 2020. Diabetes in COVID-19: Prevalence, pathophysiology, prognosis and practical considerations. Diabetes & metabolic syndrome, 14(4), 303–310.
  228. Singh, M. V, Chapleau, M.W., Harwani, S.C. & Abboud, F.M. 2014. The immune system and hypertension. Immunologic research, 59(1–3), 243–253.
  229. Smith, T.C. & Reiss, D.R. 2020. Digging the rabbit hole, COVID-19 edition: anti-vaccine themes and the discourse around COVID-19. Microbes and infection, 22(10), 608–610.
  230. Soro-Paavonen, A., Gordin, D., Forsblom, C., Rosengard-Barlund, M., Waden, J., Thorn, L., Sandholm, N., Thomas, M.C. & Groop, P.-H. 2012. Circulating ACE2 activity is increased in patients with type 1 diabetes and vascular complications. Journal of hypertension, 30(2), 375–383.
  231. Srivastava, A., Bandopadhyay, A., Das, D., Pandey, R.K., Singh, V., Khanam, N., Srivastava, N., Singh, P.P., Dubey, P.K., Pathak, A., Gupta, P., Rai, N., Sultana, G.N.N. & Chaubey, G. 2020. Genetic Association of ACE2 rs2285666 Polymorphism With COVID-19 Spatial Distribution in India. Frontiers in Genetics, 11, 1163.
  232. Su, S., Wong, G., Shi, W., Liu, J., Lai, A.C.K., Zhou, J., Liu, W., Bi, Y. & Gao, G.F. 2016. Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses. Trends in Microbiology, 24(6), 490–502.
  233. Sun, Z., Thilakavathy, K., Kumar, S.S., He, G. & Liu, S. V. 2020. Potential Factors Influencing Repeated SARS Outbreaks in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1633.
  234. Szabo, G. & Saha, B. 2015. Alcohol’s Effect on Host Defense. Alcohol research: current reviews, 37(2), 159–170.
  235. Tan, W. & Aboulhosn, J. 2020. The cardiovascular burden of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a focus on congenital heart disease. International Journal of Cardiology, 309, 70–77.
  236. Targher, G., Mantovani, A., Wang, X.-B., Yan, H.-D., Sun, Q.-F., Pan, K.-H., Byrne, C.D., Zheng, K.I., Chen, Y.-P., Eslam, M., George, J. & Zheng, M.-H. 2020. Patients with diabetes are at higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19. Diabetes & metabolism, 46(4), 335–337.
  237. Testino, G. 2020. Are Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders at Increased Risk for Covid-19 Infection? Alcohol and Alcoholism, 55(4), 344-346.
  238. The Australian Jewish News. 2020. Israel invents one-minute coronavirus breath test ( Last accessed on 28 June 2020.
  239. TheWeek. 2020. The world should know how Covid-19 was made in China ( Last accessed on 24 May 2020.
  240. Tokarev, A. & Guatelli, J. 2011. Misdirection of membrane trafficking by HIV-1 Vpu and Nef: Keys to viral virulence and persistence. Cellular logistics, 1(3), 90–102.
  241. Torre-Fuentes, L., Matías-Guiu, J., Hernández-Lorenzo, L., Montero-Escribano, P., Pytel, V., Porta-Etessam, J., Gómez-Pinedo, U. & Matías-Guiu, J.A. 2020. ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin variants and SARS-CoV-2 infection in Madrid, Spain. Journal of medical virology, 1-7.
  242. Tosepu, R., Gunawan, J., Effendy, D.S., Ahmad, L.O.A.I., Lestari, H., Bahar, H. & Asfian, P. 2020. Correlation between weather and Covid-19 pandemic in Jakarta, Indonesia. Science of The Total Environment, 725, 138436.
  243. Toyoshima, Y., Nemoto, K., Matsumoto, S., Nakamura, Y. & Kiyotani, K. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 genomic variations associated with mortality rate of COVID-19. Journal of Human Genetics.
  244. Traavik, T., Mehl, R. & Kjeldsberg, E. 1977. “Runde” virus, a coronavirus-like agent associated with seabirds and ticks. Archives of virology, 55(1–2), 25–38.
  245. Vardavas, C.I. & Nikitara, K. 2020. COVID-19 and smoking: A systematic review of the evidence. Tobacco Induced Diseases, 18(March), 1-3.
  246. Vellingiri, B., Jayaramayya, K., Iyer, M., Narayanasamy, A., Govindasamy, V., Giridharan, B., Ganesan, S., Venugopal, A., Venkatesan, D., Ganesan, H., Rajagopalan, K., Rahman, P.K.S.M., Cho, S.-G., Kumar, N.S. & Subramaniam, M.D. 2020. COVID-19: A promising cure for the global panic. Science of The Total Environment, 725, 138277.
  247. Vietzen, H., Zoufaly, A., Traugott, M., Aberle, J., Aberle, S. & Puchhammer-Stöckl, E. 2021. NK cell receptor NKG2C deletion and HLA-E variants are risk factors for severe COVID-19. Research Square.
  248. Vishnubhotla, R., Vankadari, N., Ketavarapu, V., Amanchy, R., Avanthi, S., Bale, G., Reddy, D.N. & Sasikala, M. 2020. Genetic variants in TMPRSS2 and Structure of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and TMPRSS2 complex. bioRxiv, 2020.06.30.179663.
  249. Wallinga, J., Teunis, P. & Kretzschmar, M. 2006. Using Data on Social Contacts to Estimate Age-specific Transmission Parameters for Respiratory-spread Infectious Agents. American Journal of Epidemiology, 164(10), 936–944.
  250. Wang, D., Hu, B., Hu, C., Zhu, F., Liu, X., Zhang, J., Wang, B., Xiang, H., Cheng, Z., Xiong, Y., Zhao, Y., Li, Y., Wang, X. & Peng, Z. 2020a. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA, 323(11), 1061–1069.
  251. Wang, F., Wang, Haizhou, Fan, J., Zhang, Y., Wang, Hongling & Zhao, Q. 2020b. Pancreatic Injury Patterns in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 19 Pneumonia. Gastroenterology, 159(1), 367–370.
  252. Wang, J., Zhou, M. & Liu, F. 2020c. Reasons for healthcare workers becoming infected with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. Journal of Hospital Infection, 105(1), 100-101.
  253. Wargny, M., Gourdy, P., Ludwig, L., Seret-Bégué, D., Bourron, O., Darmon, P., Amadou, C., Pichelin, M., Potier, L., Thivolet, C., Gautier, J.-F., Hadjadj, S. & Cariou, B. 2020. Type 1 Diabetes in People Hospitalized for COVID-19: New Insights from the CORONADO Study. Diabetes Care, 43(11), e174-e177.
  254. Wedzicha, J.A. 2004. Role of viruses in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, 1(2), 115–120.
  255. Weisblum, Y., Schmidt, F., Zhang, F., DaSilva, J., Poston, D., Lorenzi, J.C., Muecksch, F., Rutkowska, M., Hoffmann, H.-H., Michailidis, E., Gaebler, C., Agudelo, M., Cho, A., Wang, Z., Gazumyan, A., Cipolla, M., Luchsinger, L., Hillyer, C.D., Caskey, M., Robbiani, D.F., Rice, C.M., Nussenzweig, M.C., Hatziioannou, T. & Bieniasz, P.D. 2020. Escape from neutralizing antibodies by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein variants. eLife, 9, e61312.
  256. WHO. 2020a. WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020 ( Last accessed on 6 October 2020.
  257. WHO. 2020b. WHO | SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) ( Last accessed on 24 May 2020.
  258. WHO. 2020c. Cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in the context of COVID-19 ( Last accessed on 14 June 2020.
  259. Williams, N. 2020. Social Distancing in the Covid-19 Pandemic. Occupational Medicine (Oxford, England), kqaa072.
  260. Williams, T.C. & Burgers, W.A. 2021. SARS-CoV-2 evolution and vaccines: cause for concern? The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 1–3.
  261. Woo, P.C.Y., Huang, Y., Lau, S.K.P. & Yuen, K.-Y. 2010. Coronavirus genomics and bioinformatics analysis. Viruses, 2(8), 1804–1820.
  262. Woo, P.C.Y., Lau, S.K.P., Lam, C.S.F., Lau, C.C.Y., Tsang, A.K.L., Lau, J.H.N., Bai, R., Teng, J.L.L., Tsang, C.C.C., Wang, M., Zheng, B.-J., Chan, K.-H. & Yuen, K.-Y. 2012. Discovery of seven novel Mammalian and avian coronaviruses in the genus deltacoronavirus supports bat coronaviruses as the gene source of alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus and avian coronaviruses as the gene source of gammacoronavirus and deltacoronavirus. Journal of virology, 86(7), 3995–4008.
  263. Wu, F., Zhou, Y., Wang, Z., Xie, M., Shi, Z., Tang, Z., Li, Xiaohe, Li, Xiaochen, Lei, C., Li, Y., Ni, Z., Hu, Yu, Liu, X., Yin, W., Cheng, L., Ye, F., Peng, J., Huang, L., Tian, J., Zhang, L., Mo, X., Zhang, Y., Hu, K., Jiang, Y., Guan, W., Xiang, J., Liu, Y., Peng, Y., Wei, L., Hu, Yahua, Peng, P., Wang, J., Liu, J., Huang, W., Chen, R., Zhao, Jianping, Li, S., Zhang, N., Zhao, Jincun, Zhong, N., Ran, P. & for the Medical Treatment Expert Group for COPD and COVID-19. 2020a. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a multicenter, retrospective, observational study. Journal of thoracic disease, 12(5), 1811–1823.
  264. Wu, Y., Jing, W., Liu, J., Ma, Q., Yuan, J., Wang, Y., Du, M. & Liu, M. 2020b. Effects of temperature and humidity on the daily new cases and new deaths of COVID-19 in 166 countries. Science of The Total Environment, 729, 139051.
  265. Wu, Y. & Yao, M. 2014. In situ airborne virus inactivation by microwave irradiation. Chinese Science Bulletin, 59(13), 1438–1445.
  266. Xia, H., Atoni, E., Zhao, L., Ren, N., Huang, D., Pei, R., Chen, Z., Xiong, J., Nyaruaba, R., Xiao, S., Zhang, B. & Yuan, Z. 2020a. SARS-CoV-2 Does Not Replicate in Aedes Mosquito Cells nor Present in Field-Caught Mosquitoes from Wuhan. Virologica Sinica, 35(3), 355–358.
  267. Xia, T., Kleinheksel, A., Lee, E.M., Qiao, Z., Wigginton, K.R. & Clack, H.L. 2019. Inactivation of airborne viruses using a packed bed non-thermal plasma reactor. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 52(25), 255201.
  268. Xia, T., Yang, M., Marabella, I., Lee, E.M., Olson, B., Zarling, D., Torremorell, M. & Clack, H.L. 2020b. Inactivation of airborne porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) by a packed bed dielectric barrier discharge non-thermal plasma. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 393, 122266.
  269. Xie, J. & Zhu, Y. 2020. Association between ambient temperature and COVID-19 infection in 122 cities from China. Science of The Total Environment, 724, 138201.
  270. Xie, X., Chen, J., Wang, X., Zhang, F. & Liu, Y. 2006. Age- and gender-related difference of ACE2 expression in rat lung. Life sciences, 78(19), 2166–2171.
  271. Xu, L., Yu, D.-D., Ma, Y.-H., Yao, Y.-L., Luo, R.-H., Feng, X.-L., Cai, H.-R., Han, J.-B., Wang, X.-H., Li, M.-H., Ke, C.-W., Zheng, Y.-T. & Yao, Y.-G. 2020. COVID-19-like symptoms observed in Chinese tree shrews infected with SARS-CoV-2. Zoological research, 41(5), 517–526.
  272. Yamamoto, N., Ariumi, Y., Nishida, N., Yamamoto, R., Bauer, G., Gojobori, T., Shimotohno, K. & Mizokami, M. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 mortalities strongly correlate with ACE1 I/D genotype. Gene, 758, 144944.
  273. Yan, L., Kang, S., Guan, J. & Hu, S. 2020a. SARS-CoV-2 Is an Unrestricted Bioweapon: A Truth Revealed through Uncovering a Large-Scale, Organized Scientific Fraud. COVID-19.
  274. Yan, L., Kang, S., Guan, J. & Hu, S. 2020b. Unusual Features of the SARS-CoV-2 Genome Suggesting Sophisticated Laboratory Modification Rather Than Natural Evolution and Delineation of Its Probable Synthetic Route. COVID-19.
  275. Yang, L., Shaohui, W., Mu, Q., Weifeng, J. & Xu, L. 2020a. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Comorbidities in Coronavirus Disease 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Pooled Analysis of Published Data. Journal of the American Heart Association, 9(17), e016812.
  276. Yang, Y., Islam, M.S., Wang, J., Li, Y. & Chen, X. 2020b. Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Patients Infected with 2019-New Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): A Review and Perspective. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 16(10), 1708–1717.
  277. Ye, L., Wang, S., Wang, X., Zhou, Y., Li, J., Persidsky, Y. & Ho, W. 2010. Alcohol impairs interferon signaling and enhances full cycle hepatitis C virus JFH-1 infection of human hepatocytes. Drug and alcohol dependence, 112(1–2), 107–116.
  278. Young, T.K. & Zampella, J.G. 2020. Supplements for COVID-19: A modifiable environmental risk. Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.), 216, 108465.
  279. Yu, L., Peel, G.K., Cheema, F.H., Lawrence, W.S., Bukreyeva, N., Jinks, C.W., Peel, J.E., Peterson, J.W., Paessler, S., Hourani, M. & Ren, Z. 2020. Catching and killing of airborne SARS-CoV-2 to control spread of COVID-19 by a heated air disinfection system. Materials Today Physics, 15, 100249.
  280. Zangrillo, A., Beretta, L., Scandroglio, A.M., Monti, G., Fominskiy, E., Colombo, S., Morselli, F., Belletti, A., Silvani, P., Crivellari, M., Monaco, F., Azzolini, M.L., Reineke, R., Nardelli, P., Sartorelli, M., Votta, C.D., Ruggeri, A., Ciceri, F., Cobelli, F. De, Tresoldi, M., Dagna, L., Rovere-Querini, P., Serpa Neto, A., Bellomo, R. & Landoni, G. 2020. Characteristics, treatment, outcomes and cause of death of invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 ARDS in Milan, Italy. Critical care and resuscitation: journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine.
  281. Zhang, C., Wang, F.-S., Silvestre, J.-S., Arenzana-Seisdedos, F. & Tang, H. 2020a. Is aberrant CD8+ T cell activation by hypertension associated with cardiac injury in severe cases of COVID-19? Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 17(6), 675–676.
  282. Zhang, R., Li, Y., Zhang, A.L., Wang, Y. & Molina, M.J. 2020b. Identifying airborne transmission as the dominant route for the spread of COVID-19. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(26), 14857–14863.
  283. Zhang, T., Wu, Q. & Zhang, Z. 2020c. Pangolin homology associated with 2019-nCoV. bioRxiv, 2020.02.19.950253.
  284. Zhao, Y., Wang, J., Kuang, D., Xu, J., Yang, M., Ma, C., Zhao, S., Li, J., Long, H., Ding, K., Gao, J., Liu, J., Wang, H., Li, H., Yang, Y., Yu, W., Yang, J., Zheng, Y., Wu, D., Lu, S., Liu, H. & Peng, X. 2020. Susceptibility of tree shrew to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 16007.
  285. Zhou, F., Yu, T., Du, R., Fan, G., Liu, Y., Liu, Z., Xiang, J., Wang, Y., Song, B., Gu, X., Guan, L., Wei, Y., Li, H., Wu, X., Xu, J., Tu, S., Zhang, Y., Chen, H. & Cao, B. 2020a. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. The Lancet, 395(10229), 1054–1062.
  286. Zhou, P., Yang, X.-L., Wang, X.-G., Hu, B., Zhang, L., Zhang, W., Si, H.-R., Zhu, Y., Li, B., Huang, C.-L., Chen, H.-D., Chen, J., Luo, Y., Guo, H., Jiang, R.-D., Liu, M.-Q., Chen, Y., Shen, X.-R., Wang, X., Zheng, X.-S., Zhao, K., Chen, Q.-J., Deng, F., Liu, L.-L., Yan, B., Zhan, F.-X., Wang, Y.-Y., Xiao, G.-F. & Shi, Z.-L. 2020b. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin Nature, 579(7798), 270–273.
  287. Zhou, Y., Chi, J., Lv, W. & Wang, Y. 2020c. Obesity and diabetes as high-risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, e3377.
  288. Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J., Zhao, X., Huang, B., Shi, W., Lu, R., Niu, P., Zhan, F., Ma, X., Wang, D., Xu, W., Wu, G., Gao, G.F., Tan, W. & Team, C.N.C.I. and R. 2020. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. The New England journal of medicine, 382(8), 727–733.
  289. Zou, X., Chen, K., Zou, J., Han, P., Hao, J. & Han, Z. 2020. Single-cell RNA-seq data analysis on the receptor ACE2 expression reveals the potential risk of different human organs vulnerable to 2019-nCoV infection. Frontiers of Medicine, 14(2), 185–192.